Lecture 12 - Human Evolution Primates Anthropoids...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Human Evolution • Primates • Anthropoids Hominoids (Apes) • Hominids Australopithicus Homo erectus neanderthalensis sapiens But first, a bit about vertebrates • Urochordates Sea squirt. Only the larvae resemble chordates • Lancelets Still a filter feeder, lacks brain or skull • Craniates Hagfish. Still lack jaws, maintain a notochord as adults • Vertebrates Cartilaginous (sharks and rays) or bony structures surround dorsal nerve chord (the vertebral column). Fish Ray finned fish – Nearly all fish Lobe finned fish – Coelacanth, lungfish – Have rod shaped bones surrounding muscle in their pectoral and pelvic fins Ray-finned fish Coelacanth Lungfish Acanthostega - 365MYA
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2 Terrestrial Vertebrates Arose from the lobe-finned fish, a fairly humble lineage Comprise amphibians, reptiles (including birds), and mammals Among mammals, humans arose out of the group called primates. Primates The mammalian order Primates include – Lemurs, tarsiers, anthropoids (monkeys and apes) Humans are members of the ape group Lemur Tarsier Derived Characters of Primates Most primates – Have hands and feet adapted for grasping Primates also have – A large brain and short jaws – Forward-looking eyes close together on the face, providing depth perception – Well-developed parental care and complex social behavior – A fully opposable thumb Living Primates There are three main groups of living primates The lemurs of Madagascar and the lorises and pottos of tropical Africa and southern Asia Figure 34.37
Image of page 2
3 The tarsiers of Southeast Asia The oldest known anthropoid fossils, about 45 million years old – Indicate that tarsiers are more closely related to anthropoids Figure 34.38 60 50 40 30 20 10 Millions of years ago Ancestral primate Lemurs, lorises, and pottos Tarsiers New World monkeys Old World monkeys Gibbons Orangutans Gorillas Chim- panzees Humans Anthropoids 0 New World and Old World monkeys – Underwent separate adaptive radiations during their many millions of years of separation Figure 34.39a, b (a) New World monkeys, such as spider monkeys (shown here), squirrel monkeys, and capuchins, have a prehensile tail and nostrils that open to the sides. (b) Old World monkeys lack a prehensile tail, and their nostrils open downward. This group includes macaques (shown here), mandrills, baboons, and rhesus monkeys. the hominoids – Consists of primates informally called apes Figure 34.40a–e (a) Gibbons, such as this Muller's gibbon, are found only in southeastern Asia. Their very long arms and fingers are adaptations for brachiation. (b) Orangutans are shy, solitary apes that live in the rain forests of Sumatra and Borneo. They spend most of their time in trees; note the foot adapted for grasping and the opposable thumb.
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern