page - Chuck Charles(Chuck Darwin 1809 1882 The Origin of...

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1 Chuck Charles (Chuck) Darwin, 1809 - 1882 The Origin of Species - 1859 Created a scientific revolution Unlike some other scientific revolutions, this one did not require any new methods, observations, or calculations Instead it came from the meticulous accumulation and synthesis facts from many different fields including Geology, Systematics, Natural History, Plant and Animal Breeding, and Economics
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2 Outline • Darwin His intellectual time period The voyage of the Beagle 1831-1836 The Origin of Species 1859 Descent with Modification Natural Selection Closing remarks Linnaeus (classification) Hutton (gradual geologic change) Lamarck (species can change) Malthus (population limits) Cuvier (fossils, extinction) Lyell (modern geology) Darwin (evolution, nutural selection) Mendel (inheritance) Wallace (evolution, natural selection) 1750 American Revolution French Revolution U.S. Civil War 1800 1850 1900 1795 Hutton proposes his theory of gradualism. 1798 Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.” 1809 Lamarck publishes his theory of evolution. 1830 Lyell publishes Principles of Geology. 1831–1836 Darwin travels around the world on HMS Beagle. Darwin begins his notebooks on the origin of species. 1837 Darwin writes his essay on the origin of species. 1844 Wallace sends his theory to Darwin. 1858 The Origin of Species is published. 1859 Mendel publishes inheritance papers. 1865 Some of Darwin’s Influences Classification Linnaeus Geology Hutton, Cuvier, Lyell Populations Malthus Early Classification of Species • Aristotle Viewed species as fixed and unchanging Species arranged in a linear sequence of increasing approach towards god The Old Testament Holds that species were individually designed by God and therefore perfect and that man and woman were the final creations representing the highest forms of life
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3 Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Was a founder of taxonomy, classifying life’s diversity into a nested system of relationships or affinities (e.g. kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) Provides a more tree-like view of the relationships among living species – Interpreted organisms’ fit to their environment (adaptations) as evidence that the Creator had designed each species for a specific purpose
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4 Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution Lamarck: Theory of Inheritane of Acquired Characteristics. Hypothesized that species evolve Through use and disuse and the inheritance of acquired traits But the mechanisms he proposed are unsupported by evidence Shows that biologists were thinking about species as potentially changing and evolving into new species Geology The study of fossils helped to lay the groundwork for Darwin’s ideas Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past – Usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata Figure 22.3 Georges Cuvier Developed paleontology, the study of fossils Noted that more recent strata contained organisms more similar to the ones living today
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