pg - Animal Behavior Types of behavior Inheritance of...

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1 Animal Behavior Types of behavior Inheritance of behaviors Selection on behaviors – Foraging – Reproduction Social Behavior Sexual selection Male-male comptetion Female choice • Altruism Animals behave Do plants behave?
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2 Proximate vs. Ultimate Causes of a Behavior Behavioral ecologists distinguish between proximate and ultimate causes of behavior – Proximate causes: the immediate stimulus and mechanism for the behavior (proximate) – Ultimate causes: How the behavior contributes to survival and reproduction (ultimate) Some behaviors are hard-wired A fixed action pattern (FAP) Is a sequence of unlearned, innate behaviors that is unchangeable Once initiated, is usually carried to completion A FAP is triggered by an external sensory stimulus Known as a sign stimulus In male stickleback fish, the stimulus for attack behavior – Is the red underside of an intruder Figure 51.3a (a) A male three-spined stickleback fish shows its red underside.
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3 When presented with unrealistic models As long as some red is present, the attack behavior occurs Figure 51.3b (b) The realistic model at the top, without a red underside, produces no aggressive response in a male three-spined stickleback fish. The other models, with red undersides, produce strong responses. Proximate and ultimate causes for the FAP attack behavior in male stickleback fish Figure 51.4 ULTIMATE CAUSE: By chasing away other male sticklebacks, a male decreases the chance that eggs laid in his nesting territory will be fertilized by another male. BEHAVIOR: A male stickleback fish attacks other male sticklebacks that invade its nesting territory. PROXIMATE CAUSE: The red belly of the intruding male acts as a sign stimulus that releases aggression in a male stickleback. Some behaviors have a learning component Imprinting is a type of behavior That includes both learning and innate components and is generally irreversible Imprinting is distinguished from other types of learning by a sensitive period A limited phase in an animal’s development that is the only time when certain behaviors can be learned
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4 Konrad Lorenz showed that – When baby geese spent the first few hours of their life with him, they imprinted on him as their parent There are proximate and ultimate causes for this type of behavior Figure 51.5 BEHAVIOR: Young geese follow and imprint on their mother. PROXIMATE CAUSE: During an early, critical developmental stage, the young geese observe their mother moving away from them and calling. ULTIMATE CAUSE: On average, geese that follow and imprint on their mother receive more care and learn necessary skills, and thus have a greater chance of surviving than those that do not follow their mother.
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