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midterm notes - E SPC H AZARD is a potential threat to...

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ESPC H AZARD is a potential threat to humans and their welfare R ISK is a probability of loss V ULNERABILITY is the potential loss or degree of loss. D ISASTER is a hazardous event affecting a community in an adverse way such that essential social structures and functions are disrupted. P REDICTION AND FORECASTING : a statement that a particular hazard will occur M ITIGATION : efforts to reduce or minimize the effect of natural hazards on a community P EOPLE S REACTIONS TO DISASTERS : Anger at scientists Frustration, especially if the event is long-lived Scepticism, which can be fostered by the media Denial Suspicion, a “plot” Refusal to evacuate – people feel safest in their familiar surroundings O CCAM S RAZOR : simplest solution/idea is generally correct M OTHER NATURE is unpredictable and inherently, so are individual events. R ECURRENCE INTERVALS are the average time intervals between two events HURRICANES, TROPICAL CYCLONES, AND TYPHOONS Most occur in Asia E CONOMIC IMPACTS are the most obvious impact Cost of evacuation Impact on energy production Cost of severe coastal erosion Hurricane Katrina costliest – 81 Billion dollars D EFINITION
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A warm-core, low pressure system without any “front” attached, that develops over the tropical or subtropical waters, and has an organized circulation with winds of at least 120 kph. W ARM CORE literally means that the warmest air is at the centre of the storm, generated by multiple different mechanisms 1. LATENT HEAT RELEASE Warm moist air moves over ocean Water vapour rises into atmosphere As vapour rises, it cools and condenses into liquid droplets Condensation releases heat into atmosphere Warmed air rises with moist air taking place creating more wind 1. C OMPRESSION Subsidence as the air in the eye of cyclone sinks, it warms due to compression **N OTE ** S TORMS DO NOT FORM NEAR EQUATOR DUE TO LACK OF CORIOLIS EFFECT C ORIOLIS EFFECT is the apparent deflection of air due to rotation of earth. Air, rather than flowing directly from areas of high pressure to low pressure, rotates to the right of this direction in the Northern Hemisphere. At least four degrees from the equator, there is enough pressure to create Coriolis effect. W HERE AND WHEN Cyclones peak in late summer when water temperatures are the warmest. In general, sea surface area temperatures are warmer along eastern coasts than western coasts and are warmest near Indonesia accounting for the strongest and most frequent activity. F ORMATION AND INTENSITY There are at least four main requirements for tropical cyclogenesis 1. Enough coriolis effect to develop a low pressure centre 2. A pre-existing low-level focus or disturbance
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3. Sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, approximately 27 C ˚ at least 60 m deep 4. Low vertical wind shear These conditions are necessary but NOT sufficient for the formation of cyclones Formation Low-level disturbance to start and concentrate convection locally
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2010 for the course EPSC EPSC 200 taught by Professor Smith during the Fall '10 term at McGill.

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midterm notes - E SPC H AZARD is a potential threat to...

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