September 15 - Section Two Democracy markets and peace One...

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September 15, 2010 Section Two Democracy, markets and peace One way of guiding understanding o Early developers o Middle o Late o Experimental The emergence and spread of representative institutions Continuity- Britain, ruptures-Japan, Germany, France The paradox of revolution Focusing on communistic experiments Colonialism and its aftermath The search for freedom and self-governance Who are the early developers? According to text – Britain and France Harold Berman answers… The cities that emerged throughout Europe in the 11 and 12 centuries in northern Italy, Flanders, France, Normandy, England, Castile, Aragon and the German Duchies These were the first states in Europe Why? The uniqueness of these cities distinguishes them from all previous cities in history What makes them stand apart? 1. The way that they emerged: economically markets. Politically Charters, new modes of production and distribution. Overtime they acquired a legal consciousness of being part of a community that defined and governed itself.
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2. Italian cities – officials in cities had a fixed 10 year of office – temporal character of secular rule, public officials were not hereditary but they became officials on the strength of being elected/appointed. Guilds/artisano associations became monopolistic. Merchants were driven to find new trades. 3. The main characteristics 1. Communitarian 2. Secular 3. Constitutional 4. Capacity for growth 5. Integrity of the system 6. City as historical community 7. Focus on the core issues that help us to understand the basic fundamental issues of the European cities as they were manifested The Case of France Main points to remember: Ancient monarchy, two empires, five republics and yet, little change in the basic institutions of government Competing vision of political rule between progressive vision and a conservative vision What unites them? 1. A unitary conception of authority 2. Centralized government and administration 3. State intervention in economy French is an early developer that set the stage for later development around Europe It makes a difference for a nation to start early, so over centuries the power of the monarchy will grow How to account for French Revolution? Interaction between local and more international events through Europe No one planned the revolution Consolidation of royal power over centuries
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Strength of the monarchy; undermining the nobility, and in
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