The Four Goals of Scientific Research

The Four Goals of Scientific Research - PSYC 100 sThe Four...

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PSYC 100 sThe Four Goals of Scientific Research 1. Description of behaviour 2. Prediction of behaviour 3. Determination of the causes of behaviour doesn’t always explain! 4. Explanation of behaviour (underlying mechanisms) Clever Hans, Snowball, Harvard survey (response bias) Perception The means by which we link the external world to our inner, mental world. Locke (1632-1704): Everything we know, we know from our sense. Try to imagine a smell you’ve never smelled before. Constructive Illusions – missing information, perception is a logical process making logical deductions about what is around us. Tend to think that our senses give us an unbiased view of the world untrue Equal changes in physical world don’t result in equal changes in mental world Information hitting our sensory receptors is often ambiguous Roger Shepard Gestalt Principles of Grouping o Proximity o Similarity o Good continuation o Symmetry o Common fate Object perception The McGurk effect Thursday, October 14, 2010 I Q TESTS verbal, mathematical, reasoning G ARDER S THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES : Mathematical-logical Verbal Spatial Musical Bodily-kinesthetic
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PSYC 100 Interpersonal P RACTICAL INTELLIGENCE is often seen in business/commerce; ability to gather information on a poorly-defined problem and execute an effective solution ANALYTIC INTELLIGENCE is measure most often by IQ tests EMOTIONAL : perceive and understand emotions and use emotions to facilitate thinking read people, motivate them, etc P RODIGIES ; idiot savants, autistic children, Williams syndrome, fluid vs. crystallised M ENTAL TESTS : Measures of mental abilities o Achievements: what have you learned? What are your particular skills? o Aptitude: what might we predict you could do, if you were given more training or time to learn it? What do you seem particularly suited for C REATIVITY ACROSS CULTURES The Western View Ability to produce work that is novel and appropriate; and observable product. Creativity involves a break with tradition.
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The Four Goals of Scientific Research - PSYC 100 sThe Four...

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