ALKANES - ALKANES Formula CH 4 CH 4 C 2 H 6 CH 3 CH 3 C 3 H...

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ALKANES Formula Name CH 4 CH 4 methane gases C 2 H 6 CH 3 CH 3 ethane C 3 H 8 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 propane C 4 H 10 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 C H 3 butane C 5 H 12 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 CH 3 pentane liquids C 6 H 14 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 CH 3 hexane C 7 H 16 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 5 CH 3 heptane C 8 H 18 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 6 CH 3 octane C 9 H 20 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 nonane C 10 H 22 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 8 CH 3 decane C 11 H 24 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 9 CH 3 undecane C 12 H 26 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 CH 3 dodecane C 13 H 28 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 11 CH 3 tridecane C 14 H 30 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 12 CH 3 tetradecane C 15 H 32 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 13 CH 3 pentadecane C 16 H 34 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 14 CH 3 hexadecane C 17 H 36 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 15 CH 3 heptadecane C 18 H 38 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 16 CH 3 octadecane solids C 19 H 40 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 17 CH 3 nonadecane C 20 H 42 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 18 CH 3 eicosane
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have ring structures. Since a 4-carbon chain of the alkane series is called butane, a ring of 4 carbon atoms is called cyclobutane. Simple hydrocarbons that contain one or more double bonds are called alkenes. They are named like alkanes, but their names end in " –ene." The simplest alkene has two carbon atoms and is called ethene. A 3-carbon chain that has a double bond is called propene. A 5-carbon hydrocarbon chain with a double bond is called pentene, and if the double bond links the second and third carbons, it is 2- pentene. Like cycloalkanes, alkenes have the general formula C n H 2n . Alkenes having ring structures are called cycloalkenes. A 5-carbon ring with a double bond is called cyclopentene. Hydrocarbons that contain one or more triple bonds are called alkynes, and is the name ending is "–yne." A 2-carbon alkyne is therefore named ethyne. (However, the compound is often referred to by its common name, which is acetylene. ) Compounds that contain double or triple bonds are said to be "unsaturated"—because they are not "saturated" with hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated compounds are reactive materials that readily add hydrogen when heated over a catalyst such as nickel. The reverse reaction also occurs. Heating ethane with steam is an important commercial process for making ethene (or ethylene). This is an important commercial process called "steam cracking." When a 6-carbon ring contains 2 double bonds, it is called cyclohexadiene, but when it has 3 double bonds, it is not called cyclohexatriene; this is because a 6-carbon ring with three double bonds takes on a special kind of stability. The double bonds become completely conjugated and no longer behave as double bonds. The ring, known as a "benzene ring," is said to be aromatic.
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