1._Chapter13_intermolecular_forces_post

1._Chapter13_intermolecular_forces_post - Review The...

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Chapt. 13 1 The periodic table is the most important organizing principle in chemistry. Chemical and physical properties of elements in the same group are similar. All chemical and physical properties vary in a periodic manner, hence the name periodic table . Review
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Chapt. 13 2 Electron Configuration of Multielectron Atoms Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers ( n , l , m l , m s ). Hund’s Rule: When filling orbitals in the same subshell, maximize the number of parallel spins. Rules of Aufbau Principle: Lower n orbitals fill first. Each orbital holds two electrons; each with different m s . Half-fill degenerate orbitals before pairing electrons.
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Chapt. 13 3 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 7s 7p Increasing Energy [He] [Ne] [Ar] [Kr] [Xe] [Rn] Core Electron Configuration of Multielectron Atoms Li ↑↓ 1 s 2 2 s 1 1 s 2 s Be 1 s 2 2 s 2 1s 2 s B 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 1 1 s 2 s 2 p x 2 p y 2 p z C 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 2 1 s 2 s 2 p x 2 p y 2 p z N 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 3 1 s 2 s 2 p x 2 p y 2 p z O 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 4 1 s 2 s 2 p x 2 p y 2 p z Ne 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 1 s 2 s 2 p x 2 p y 2 p z S [Ne] [Ne] 3 s 2 3 p 4 3 s 3 p x 3 p y 3 p z Sulfur is below Oxygen in the periodic table outer shell has the same electron configuration
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Chapt. 13 4 Electron Configuration of Multielectron Atoms
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Chapt. 13 5 Lewis structure of the first 18 elements The Formation of Chemical Bonds The “noble” gases, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Ra, are almost inert chemically. The number of electrons for the noble gasses are; 2 for helium, 10 for neon (2+8), 18 for argon (2+8+8), and so on. They are described as having “filled shells” or having filled outer octets. Other elements can achieve such stable electronic configurations by gaining or losing electrons. The driving force behind atoms combining with each other is the tendency for atoms to gain, lose, or share electrons so as to fill their outermost electronic energy levels . For example NaCl. Cl + - Na + [Ne] full outer shell (stable) [Ne] 3s 2 3p 6 full outer shell (stable)
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Chapt. 13 6 Orbital Energy Levels in Multielectron Atoms Effective Nuclear Charge Electron shielding leads to energy differences among orbitals within a shell. Net nuclear charge felt by an electron is called the effective nuclear charge ( Z eff ). Z eff is lower than actual nuclear charge. Z eff increases toward nucleus ns > np > nd > nf This explains certain periodic changes observed. Z eff = Z actual – Electron Shielding
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Chapt. 13 7 Trends in the Periodic Table. Atomic Radii Li 1s 2 2s 1 the electron in the 2s orbital is shielded by the two electrons in the 1s 2 orbital. The 2s electron feels +1 rather than the full +3 charge from the nucleus.
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1._Chapter13_intermolecular_forces_post - Review The...

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