Lectures for exam 2

Lectures for exam 2 - I. II. III. IV. V. Daily Habits of...

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I. Daily Habits of Animals a. Find food, avoid preparations, find shelter, find mates II. Biological Rhythms behavior pattern with cyclical component a. Circadian rhythm: daily rhythm b. Drosophila fruit fly circadian rhythm i. Role of per (period) gene 1. per + (wild type)=24hr rhythm 2. per S (short)= 19 hr rhythm 3. per l (long)= 28 hr rhythm c. circadian rhythm is beneficial- behaviors suited for time of day III. Fiddler crab Tidal Rhythm a. Need to be on mud bank for food when tide is out and need to be back in burrow before tide comes back in so it’s not pulled away b. Have to anticipate when water is changing c. Experiment: put fiddler crab in aquarium with mud flap and rising/falling tide i. Timing depends on where the crab is captured from 1. Crab from Beaufort put in lab matches tidal pattern happening at Beaufort coast 2. Goes away after being in lab for a while IV. Semi lunar Rhythm in Grunion a. Grunion lay eggs buried in sound to avoid predation b. Have to be able to get to beach and back to water and allow offspring to reach water when hatched c. 2 times a month- get high tide (due to sun/moon -see ppt slide) and low tide i. Neap tide level tides around world ii. Spring tide highest tide and lowest tides, sun/moon pulls at extreme d. Grunion take advantage of extremely high tides twice a month i. Lay eggs at spring tide level
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ii. Tide goes down and 2 weeks later, eggs hatch and spring tide is back up 1. Covers baby fish to carry back to ocean 2. Fish spawn every 2 weeks and it takes 2 weeks for offspring to develop V. Lunar (and other) Rhythm in Palolo worms a. Reproductive segments in a string epitoke b. Have to release egg/sperm in water i. Have to release eggs when they can be fertilized c. Circannual (about a year) rhythm i. At dawn during breeding season, on the day of the last quarter moon-animals breed ii. Epitoke breaks off and swims to surface of ocean and spawns egg and sperm together at once I. Entrainment I: Teleagryllus crickets a. Rhythm is largely genetic endogenous biological rhythm i. Can be affected by environment alarm clock disturbs humans circadian rhythm b. Entrainment is process when environment alters phenotype of biological rhythms i. Experiment sent people to caves where they had no indication time, day, night, etc 1. Eventually people adopted a circadian rhythm was 25 hr cycle without cues 2. Gave people environmental cues and could entrain 24 hr cycle to people c. Crickets: males sing by rubbing wings against legs- to attract females which are active at night i. Start singing before females become active, stop singing right before dawn ii. Keep cricket in lab with 24 hr light/dark cycle
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1. Started singing around 5pm just before the light turned off and stopped singing around 3 am right near the end of the dark cycle iii. Take same cricket but this time eliminate 24 light/dark cycle and keep in dark 1. At first started singing around 5pm and stopped at 3am 2. On the second day, started singing around 6 pm and stopped at 4 am
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course BIOL 278 taught by Professor Lohmann during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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Lectures for exam 2 - I. II. III. IV. V. Daily Habits of...

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