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MET 34800 – Engineering Materials Chapter 11

MET 34800 – Engineering Materials Chapter...

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MET 34800 – ENGINEERING MATERIALS IUPUI ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY ENT Department
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CHAPTER 11 CERAMICS, CERMETS, GLASS, AND CARBON PRODUCTS Engineering Materials: properties and selection, 9th ed. Kenneth G. Budinski, Michael K. Budinski
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Upon completion of this chapter, the student should: have an understanding of the composition and structure of ceramics, glass, carbon products, and cemented carbides have a working knowledge of how to select and use these materials to solve design problems CHAPTER GOALS 3
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Definition of a ceramic Discriminating properties 11.1 THE NATURE OF CERAMICS 4
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Figure 11–1 Spectrum of ceramics uses 11.1 THE NATURE OF CERAMICS 5
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Figure 11–2 Relative fracture toughness of engineering materials 11.1 THE NATURE OF CERAMICS 6
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Common processes Starting materials Composition Hipping Spectrum of ceramics 11.2 HOW CERAMICS ARE MADE 7
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Figure 11–3 Some ceramic fabrication processes 11.2 HOW CERAMICS ARE MADE 8
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Figure 11–4 Fabrication of ceramic shapes 11.2 HOW CERAMICS ARE MADE 9
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11.2 HOW CERAMICS ARE MADE Table 11–1 Typical ceramics for engineering design 10
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11.2 HOW CERAMICS ARE MADE Important Points to Remember: Most ceramics are hard and brittle; thus, parts cannot be easily machined from standard shapes. Rough machining must be done in the green or unfired state. Forming ceramics into special shapes by molding usually involves the fabrication of tooling for that particular part, possibly making one-of-a-kind parts expensive. The presence of binders (like a glassy phase) in a fired ceramic lowers its strength. If strength is a selection factor, the percentage of theoretical density should be specified and controlled. Sintering of ceramic parts usually involves a size change. They can shrink as much as 30%. For this reason, fired ceramic parts are difficult to make to close dimensional requirements. (Tolerances are typically ± 1 %, plus allowances for distortion. ) 11
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Covalent bonding Crystal structure Microstructures by optical and SEM microscopy 11.3 MICROSTRUCTURE OF CERAMICS 12
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Figure 11–5 Covalent and ionic bonds 11.3 MICROSTRUCTURE OF CERAMICS 13
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Figure 11–6 Crystal structure of magnesium oxide 11.3 MICROSTRUCTURE OF CERAMICS 14
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Figure 11–7 Possible microstructures of engineering ceramics. a) Single phase, b) Resin bonded, c) Precipitates and d) Two phases 11.3 MICROSTRUCTURE OF CERAMICS 15
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11.4 PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS Mechanical Physical Chemical Designation systems Fabricability 16
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11.4 PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS Table 11–2 Relative properties comparison of engineering ceramics 17
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11.5 CONCRETE Widely used engineering material Is a composite of sand, aggregate and Portland cement Chemical reaction of water and cement form matrix Concrete is not used in tension without steel reinforcement 18
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Structure Feedstocks Viscosity of glass Expansion/thermal characteristics Compositions Distinguishing characteristics Applications including metallic glasses 11.6 GLASSES 19
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Figure 11–8: Comparison of regular and random structures 11.6 GLASSES 20
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