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CLAR 242 Midterm review sheet-1

CLAR 242 Midterm review sheet-1 - 1 CLAR 242 Archaeology of...

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CLAR 242. Archaeology of Egypt. Midterm review sheet 2008. The exam coming up Thursday, March 6 (our last meeting before break). Bring a blue book. The test will cover Predynastic, Archaic (Dynasties I-II), and Old Kingdom material only, and only as far as we have gotten in class. The exam will consist of short answer and essay; some questions might be on images, shown as slides; the images will be things that we have seen and discussed in class (and in your books). Below are the kinds of questions that I might ask. 1. Describe the architectural refinements of Zoser's (Djoser's) Pyramid complex at Saqqara and explain how these architectural features function together as a medium of display and communication of royal power and Egyptian culture? a. Famous step pyramid of 3 rd dynasty. 1 entrance at SE although it had 13 other non functional entrances. Represents new order of royal power controlling vast recourses to construct earliest monument built entirely of stone (limestone) . Built in form of a modified palace façade pattern. Stood at center of a large rectangular enclosure. Shape of the enclosure was similar to Early Dynastic funerary enclosures. Began as a square like those at Abydos but was enlarged with five more squares added one on top of another. Like Early Dynastic scenes, a stone platform with steps stood in front of the Step Pyramid. This symbolized the limits of the king’s territory and allowed the ruler to perform the rituals of kingship. In some of the relief panels within the funerary complex, Djoser is shown running between territorial markers. He is surrounded by symbols of his office. The continuous symbols of kingship are shown as well as hieroglyphs symbolizing the extent of the king’s rule. The burial chamber was cut into rock beneath the pyramid. The complex also included the funerary temple and a serdab, carrying a life size statue of Djoser. This statue provided a place where the king’s ka could manifest itself to observe and benefit from the ritual that would take place. 2. What is new and important in the III Dynasty with the mortuary complex of Zoser? What are the various architectural components and how are they combined into a coherent whole? What are the purposes or meanings of the various parts of the complex? a. It is constructed from stone instead of mud brick used before the 3 rd dynasty. The Djoser complex is the first time all parts are included together. It is surrounded by an enclosure wall that is impressive in size and craftsmanship. It is believed that the wall is of symbolic nature as opposed to military protection. The funerary temple was on the north side 1
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of the pyramid facing the northern sky in which the king hoped to pass eternity. Daily rituals and offerings for the dead ruler would be performed here. The serdab was to the east of the funerary temple and housed a life- size statue of Djoser. Two holes were cut in the north wall of the serdab to serve as a link between the worlds of the living and the dead. In the South Court of the complex, the sed-festival took place. Curved stone territorial
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CLAR 242 Midterm review sheet-1 - 1 CLAR 242 Archaeology of...

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