MET 34800 - Engineering Materials Chapter 22

MET 34800 - Engineering Materials Chapter 22 - IUPUI...

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MET 34800 – ENGINEERING MATERIALS IUPUI ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY ENT Department
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NANOMATERIALS CHAPTER 22 Engineering Materials: properties and selection 9th ed Engineering Materials: properties and selection, 9th ed. Kenneth G. Budinski, Michael K. Budinski
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CHAPTER GOALS an understanding of the field of nanotechnology an understanding of the field of nanotechnology. knowledge of the application of nanomaterials for real world technical and engineering applications. an appreciation for process and methods to fabricate nanomaterials. insight into the tools and methods used to characterize nano-scale materials and fabricated components. 3
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INTRODUCTION Nanotechnology: the study of the controlling of matter on a scale <100 nm History of nanotechnology: htt // iki di / iki/Hi t f t h l http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_nanotechnolog y Nanotechnology and nanoscience got a boost in the early 1980s with two major developments the birth of cluster science th i ti f th i g t li g i (STM) the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative ( http://www nano gov/ ) founded to coordinate http://www.nano.gov/ Federal nanotechnology R&D in 2000, 4
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INTRODUCTION Figure 22-1 Examples of familiar nano scale of familiar nano-scale items found in nature. 5
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INTRODUCTION A nano-particle is very small in size and results a small in size, and results a greater percentage of the atoms reside on the surface Fig 22 2 R ti f f t t For Pt nano-particles w. 2 nm- diameter, 50% of the Pt atoms in the particle reside on the surface Figure 22-2 Ratio of surface atoms to core atoms as a function of particle size for platinum. As the Pt particles go smaller than 10 nm, the number of surface atoms dramatically increases, The surface atoms not as strongly bound as core atoms in nano particles the melting point increasing the reactivity of these particles. Data based on simple spherical shell model. 6 nano-particles, the melting point can be depressed
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INTRODUCTION Special Properties of nanomaterials: N bl i l h P d A b i Noble materials such as Pt and Au become very reactive and are capable of becoming catalysts to enable chemical reactions. Stable metals such as aluminum become combustible. Opaque materials such as copper become transparent. Materials such as carbon fibers and tubes reach very high strength and stiffness. Gravitational effects become diminished while van der Gravitational effects become diminished, while van der Waals and other bonding effects become pronounced. Surface tension effects also become more pronounced. As particle sizes approach the atomic level, quantum mechanical effects become significant. 7
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INTRODUCTION Figure 22-3 The spectrum of Nanotechnology: various areas of study and product development 8
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22.1 NANOMATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION TOOLS Chemical analysis methods: Raman spectroscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR I X ray Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR I X-ray
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