Memory - Chapter 7 Memory What is Memory Memory capacity to...

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Chapter 7 Memory
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What is Memory? Memory – capacity to preserve and recover information
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Basic Memory Processes Encoding – process of putting information into memory Storage - maintain information in memory over time. Retrival - recover information from storage into consciousness (recall or recognition)
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Types of Memory Codes 1. Acoustic Encoding – mental representations of information as sounds ( echoic memory) 2. Visual Encoding – mental representations of information as images ( iconic memory) 3. Semantic Encoding – mental representation of general meaning of experience
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Types of Long-term Memory (LTM) Episodic Memory – memory of an event that happened while one was present (i.e., an “ episode ” in one’s life) Semantic Memory – a memory of generalized knowledge of the world (e.g., capital of USA?) Procedural Memory – memory containing information on how to do things (e.g., how to ride a bike).
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Types of Retrieval Processes Recall – retrieval of stored information without cues clues (e.g., essay question) Recognition – retrieval aided by cues/clues (e.g., multiple choice test)
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Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit memory (episodic & semantic) – the process in which people intentionally try to remember something Implicit memory (procedural) – the unintentional influence of prior experience Word Fragment completion test (e.g, H_T)
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Models of Memory 1. Levels of Processing degree of information encoding/processing determines strength of memory a. Maintenance rehearsal - repeating an item to keep it active “ROT REHERSAL” b. Elaborate rehearsing – relating new information to information already stored in memory
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Models of Memory Con’t 1. Transfer-Appropriate Processing Model – critical determinant of memory is how well retrieval and encoding processes match .
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