Personality - Chapter 12 Chapter 12 Personality •...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12 Chapter 12 Personality • Personality – unique pattern of enduring thoughts, feelings, and actions that characterize a person Sigmund Freud and Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis • Psychodynamic theory ­ assumes that our thoughts, feelings, and behavior are determined by the interaction of various unconscious psychological processes. Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis Con’t Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis Con’t • The conscious_ ­ whatever we are _ of at any • • given moment – thoughts, feelings, sensations, and memories. The preconscious ­ contains all the memories , feelings, experiences, and perceptions that we are not consciously thinking about at the moment The unconscious ­ memories that were once conscious but were so anxiety­provoking or unpleasant that they were repressed (involuntarily removed from consciousness ). Components to Personality (Freud) Components to Personality (Freud) • Id– contains basic impulses and urges, present at 1. birth. Pleasure Principle – guides people toward whatever feels good. Components to Personality (Freud) Components to Personality (Freud) • Super– Ego behavior according to parents and 1. culture Idealistic Principle – always act in a proper and ideal fashion as defined by parents and culture Components to Personality (Freud) Components to Personality (Freud) • Ego– mediates conflicts between the demands of the id, the superego, and the real world 1. Reality Principle – creates compromise between the id’s demands and those of the real world. Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms • Repression– unconsciously pushing threatening • • • • memories, urges, or ideas from conscious awareness Projection– unconsciously attributing one’s own unacceptable thoughts and impulses to another person Denial– simply discounting the existence of threatening impulses Rationalization–attempting to make actions or mistakes seem reasonable Regression ­ revert to behavior that might have reduced anxiety at an earlier stage of development Defense Mechanisms Con’t Defense Mechanisms Con’t • Reaction Formation – defending against • • • unacceptable impulses by acting opposite of them Displacement– deflecting an impulse from its original target to a less threatening one Sublimation– converting unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable actions, and perhaps, symbolically expressing them Compensation– striving to make up for unconscious impulses or fears Psychosexual Stages of Development Psychosexual Stages of Development • Psychosexual Stages ­ centers on a particular part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations (an erogenous zone) and around which conflicts arises Fixation– unconsciously preoccupied with the area of pleasure associated with that stage. • Psychosexual Stages of Development Psychosexual Stages of Development Con’t • • 1. 2. The Oral Stage (Birth to 1 year) – the mouth is the center of pleasure and conflict The Anal Stage (1 to 3 years) – the focus of pleasure shifts from the mouth to the anus. Anal Expulsive Personality ­ someone who is sloppy, irresponsible, rebellious, hostile, and destructive. Anal Retentive Personality ­ gaining security through what they possess and become stingy, stubborn, rigid, excessively neat and clean, orderly, and precise • Psychosexual Stages of Development Psychosexual Stages of Development Con’t 1. 2. 3. The Phallic Stage (3 to 5 years) – the focus of pleasure and conflict shifts to the genital area. Oedipus Complex – boy has sexual desires for his mother and wants to eliminate his father’s competition for her attention (castration anxiety) Electra Complex – a young girl develops an attachment to her father and competes with her mother for his attention (penis envy) Identification ­ child adopts the behaviors, mannerisms of the same sex parent leading to the development of the superego Psychosexual Stages of Development Psychosexual Stages of Development Con’t • The Latency Period (5 or 6 years to puberty) – • sexual impulses lie dormant Genital Stage (adolescence onward) – sexual impulses appear at the conscious level and gradually shifts to the opposite sex for the vast majority of people Carl Jung : Carl Collective Unconscious • Collective unconscious ­ Common set of ideas, • feelings, images, and symbols that we inherit from our ancestors, the whole human race, and even nonhuman ancestors from the distant past Archetypes ­ Universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or experience • Mother • Good • Evil Karen Horney : Karen Neo­Freudian Perspective • First feminist psychologist • Personality develops in the context of social relationships Alfred Adler Alfred Adler • People strive for superiority • Inferiority complex ­ Problem affecting – Self­improvement adults who have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority that they developed as children, when they were small and limited in their knowledge about the world Trait Approaches Terait Approaches ve siti n S Fr ien dli • Trait theory ­ Model of personality that ne ss seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality • Trait ­ Consistent personality characteristics and behaviors displayed in different situations y Ten se Sh Gordon Allport Gordon • 18,000 terms to describe personality • Cardinal • Central – Single characteristic that directs most of a person’s activities – Five to ten major characteristics of an individual – Characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations and are less influential • Secondary The Big Five The Big Five • • • • • Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Learning Approaches Learning Approaches • Behaviorist approach – B.F. Skinner – Collection of learned behavior patterns Learning Approaches Learning Approaches • Social cognitive approach – – – Albert Bandura Observational learning Viewing the actions of others and observing the consequences – Emphasizes the influence of cognition • Thoughts • Feelings • Expectations • values Humanistic Approaches Humanistic Approaches • Humanistic approaches to personality – Abraham Maslow • Self­actualization – State of self­fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, each in his or her own unique way – Carl Rogers • Unconditioned positive regard – Attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does Assessing Personality Assessing Personality • Psychological tests – Standard measures devised to assess behavior objectively • Self­report measures • MMPI­2 – A test used to differentiate people with specific sorts of psychological difficulties as well as predicting a variety of other behaviors Projective Methods Projective Methods • Projective personality test • • – A test in which a person is shown an ambiguous stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it Rorschach test TAT The _Rorschach Inkblot Test The ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2010 for the course PSYC 1001 taught by Professor Domangue during the Spring '10 term at LSU.

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