This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Childhood Cognition and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Midadulthood: The 1958 British Birth Cohort Study Chris Power, PhD, Barbara J.M.H. Jefferis, PhD, and Orly Manor, PhD Individuals with a higher IQ in the first 2 decades of life have been found to have lower death rates from all causes in mid- to late adulthood, as reported in a systematic review of 9 prospective studies. 1 Associations between childhood cognition and mortality were not caused by confounding, reverse causality, or selection bias; hence, work directed at under- standing the association is needed. Knowledge of the specific diseases associ- ated with childhood cognition may yield clues about the likely explanations. Recent studies have investigated relationships between child- hood cognition and intermediate risk factors for later cardiovascular disease. For example, higher childhood cognition has been associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the Midspan cohorts of Scottish adults, 2 although another Scottish study found no asso- ciation for self-reported hypertension. 3 Preva- lence of self-reported diabetes was reduced in adults with higher childhood cognition in a US but not a Scottish population. 3,4 Associations between higher childhood cognition and lower levels of adiposity have been observed, with some studies investigating mediation of factors such as adult education. 58 Explanations have been proposed for associ- ations between childhood cognition and adult mortality or morbidity: first, there may be common causes of cognition and adult disease, including childhood socioeconomic position; second, childhood cognition predicts later edu- cational and occupational attainment, which in turn influences exposure to hazardous environ- ments that affect risk of adult disease; and third, childhood cognition affects the extent to which individuals acquire or act on knowledge about protective or health-damaging behaviors linked to disease. 9 Few studies have examined expla- nations in detail, largely because of limited data availability on relevant factors. We, therefore, examined associations be- tween childhood cognition and several risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large population-based sample of men and women. Our primary aim was to establish whether childhood cognition is associated with blood pressure, lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ), and total or central adiposity in mid- life. We sought to determine whether associa- tions between childhood cognition and risk factors for CVD are explained by (1) early life factors, such as birthweight and social origins, which could act as common causes of both cognition and CVD risk; (2) adult social posi- tion; or (3) health behaviors. We studied a prospective birth cohort, followed to age 45 years, in which we have previously shown lower birthweight and less-advantaged social origins to be associated with poorer childhood cognition....
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 12/02/2010 for the course PSYCH PSY BEH P2 taught by Professor Susanturkcharles during the Fall '10 term at UC Irvine.
- Fall '10
- The Land