Week+3+required+Taylor+et+al++2000++tend+and+befriend

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Psychological Review 2000, Vol. 107, No. 3, 411-429 Copyright 2000 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0033-295X/0№00 DOI: 10.1037//0033-295X.107.3.411 Biobehavioral Responses to Stress in Females: Tend-and-Befriend, Not Fight-or-Flight Shelley E. Taylor, Laura Cousino Klein, Brian P. Lewis, Tara L. Gruenewald, Regan A. R. Gurung, and John A. Updegraff University of California, Los Angeles The human stress response has been characterized, both physiologically and behaviorally, as "fight-or- flight." Although fight-or-flight may characterize the primary physiological responses to stress for both males and females, we propose that, behaviorally, females' responses are more marked by a pattern of "tend-and-befriend." Tending involves nurturant activities designed to protect the self and offspring that promote safety and reduce distress; befriending is the creation and maintenance of social networks that may aid in this process. The biobehavioral mechanism that underlies the tend-and-befriend pattern appears to draw on the attachment-caregiving system, and neuroendocrine evidence from animal and human studies suggests that oxytocin, in conjunction with female reproductive hormones and endogenous opioid peptide mechanisms, may be at its core. This previously unexplored stress regulatory system has manifold implications for the study of stress. Survival depends on the ability to mount a successful response to threat. The human stress response has been characterized as fight-or-flight (Cannon, 1932) and has been represented as an essential mechanism in the survival process. We propose that human female responses to stress (as well as those of some animal species) are not well characterized by fight-or-flight, as research has implicitly assumed, but rather are more typically characterized by a pattern we term "tend-and-befriend." Specifically, we suggest that, by virtue of differential parental investment, female stress responses have selectively evolved to maximize the survival of self and offspring. We suggest that females respond to stress by nur- turing offspring, exhibiting behaviors that protect them from harm and reduce neuroendocrine responses that may compromise off- spring health (the tending pattern), and by befriending, namely, Shelley E. Taylor, Laura Cousino Klein, Brian P. Lewis. Tara L. Gruenewald, Regan A. R. Gurung, and John A. Updegraff, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles. Laura Cousino Klein is now in the Department of Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University; Brian P. Lewis is now in the Department of Psychology, Syracuse University; and Regan A. R. Gurung is now in the Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin—Green Bay. Support for preparation of diis article was provided by National Science Foundation Grant SBR 9905157, National Institute of Mental Health Grant MH 056880, and the MacArthur Foundation's SES and Health Network.
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