Week+3+required+Taylor+et+al++2000++tend+and+befriend

Week+3+required+Taylor+et+al++2000++tend+and+befriend -...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychological Review 2000, V o l. 107, N o. 3, 4 1 1 -4 2 9 Copyright 2000 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0 0 3 3 -2 9 5 X /0 0 0 DOI: 10.1037//0033-295X.107.3.411 Biobehavioral Responses to Stress in Fem ales: Tend-and-Befriend, Not Fight-or-Flight Shelley E. Taylor, Laura Cousino Klein, Brian P. Lew is, Tara L. Gruenewald, Regan A. R. Gurung, and John A. Updegraff U n iv e r s ity o f C a lifo r n ia , L o s A n g e le s T h e hum an stress respon se h as been characterized, both p h ysio lo gically an d beh avio rally, as "figh t-or- flig h t." A lth o u g h fight-or-flight m ay characterize th e prim ary p h ysio lo gical re sp o n se s to stre ss fo r both m ales an d fem ales, w e propose that, b eh avio rally, fem a les' resp o n ses are m ore m arked by a pattern o f "ten d -an d -befrien d ." T ending in v o lv e s nurturant activities d esign ed to protect the self an d o ffsp rin g that prom ote safety an d reduce d istre ss; b efrien d in g is th e creation an d m ain ten an ce of social n etw o rk s that m ay aid in th is p ro cess. T he b io b eh avio ral m echan ism th at underlies the ten d-an d-befrien d p attern appears to d raw on the attac h m en t-c aregivin g system , and n euroen docrin e eviden ce from anim al and hum an studies su g g e sts th at oxytocin , in conjunction w ith fem ale reproductive h orm on es an d en d o gen o u s opioid p ep tid e m echanism s, m ay be at its co re. T his p revio u sly un explored stre ss regu lato ry system h as m anifold im p licatio n s for th e stu d y of stress. S u r v i v a l d e p e n d s o n th e a b ility to m o u n t a s u c c e s s f u l r e s p o n s e to th r e a t. T h e h u m a n s tr e s s r e s p o n s e h a s b e e n c h a ra c te riz e d a s fig h t- o r- flig h t (C a n n o n , 1 9 3 2 ) a n d h a s b e e n re p re se n te d a s a n e s s e n tia l m e c h a n is m in th e s u r v iv a l p r o c e s s . W e p ro p o s e th a t h u m a n fe m a le r e s p o n s e s to s tr e s s ( a s w e ll a s th o se o f s o m e a n im a l s p e c ie s ) a r e n o t w e ll c h a r a c te r iz e d b y fig h t- o r- flig h t, a s re s e a rc h h a s im p lic it ly a s s u m e d , b u t ra th e r a r e m o r e ty p ic a lly c h a ra c te riz e d b y a p a tte r n w e te rm " te n d - a n d - b e frie n d ." S p e c if ic a lly , w e s u g g e s t th a t, b y v ir t u e o f d iffe r e n tia l p a r e n ta l in v e s tm e n t, fe m a le s t r e s s re s p o n s e s h a v e s e le c t iv e ly e v o lv e d to m a x im iz e th e s u r v iv a l o f s e lf a n d o ffs p r in g . W e s u g g e s t th a t f e m a le s re sp o n d to s tr e s s b y n u r - tu r in g o ffs p r in g , e x h ib itin g b e h a v io r s th a t p ro te c t th e m fro m h a rm a n d re d u c e n e u r o e n d o c r in e r e s p o n s e s th a t m a y c o m p ro m is e o f f - s p r in g h e a lth (th e te n d in g p a tte rn ) , a n d b y b e fr ie n d in g , n a m e ly , S h elley E . T aylor, L au ra C o u sin o K lein, B rian P . L e w is. T ara L .S h elley E ....
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2010 for the course PSYCH PSY BEH P2 taught by Professor Susanturkcharles during the Fall '10 term at UC Irvine.

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Week+3+required+Taylor+et+al++2000++tend+and+befriend -...

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