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Unformatted text preview: http://pps.sagepub.com/ Science Perspectives on Psychological http://pps.sagepub.com/content/3/5/400 The online version of this article can be found at: DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x 2008 3: 400 Perspectives on Psychological Science Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Blair E. Wisco and Sonja Lyubomirsky Rethinking Rumination Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: Association For Psychological Science can be found at: Perspectives on Psychological Science Additional services and information for http://pps.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Email Alerts: http://pps.sagepub.com/subscriptions Subscriptions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Permissions: at UNIV CALIFORNIA IRVINE on September 24, 2010 pps.sagepub.com Downloaded from Rethinking Rumination Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, 1 Blair E. Wisco, 1 and Sonja Lyubomirsky 2 1 Yale University and 2 University of California, Riverside ABSTRACT— The response styles theory (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) was proposed to explain the insidious relationship between rumination and depression. We review the aspects of the response styles theory that have been well-sup- ported, including evidence that rumination exacerbates depression, enhances negative thinking, impairs problem solving, interferes with instrumental behavior, and erodes social support. Next, we address contradictory and new findings. Specifically, rumination appears to more consis- tently predict the onset of depression rather than the du- ration, but rumination interacts with negative cognitive styles to predict the duration of depressive symptoms. Contrary to original predictions, the use of positive dis- tractions has not consistently been correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in correlational studies, al- though dozens of experimental studies show positive dis- tractions relieve depressed mood. Further, evidence now suggests that rumination is associated with psychopa- thologies in addition to depression, including anxiety, binge eating, binge drinking, and self-harm. We discuss the relationships between rumination and worry and between rumination and other coping or emotion-regulation strategies. Finally, we highlight recent research on the distinction between rumination and more adaptive forms of self-reﬂection, on basic cognitive deficits or biases in rumination, on its neural and genetic correlates, and on possible interventions to combat rumination. It is said that human beings are the only species who can reﬂect upon themselves. Self-reﬂection, the process of focusing on one’s experiences, thoughts, and feelings, has been the topic of a great deal of research in recent years (see reviews by Ingram, 1990; Mor & Winquist, 2002; Papageorgiou & Wells, 2004)....
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2010 for the course PSYCH Psy BEh 17 taught by Professor Susancharles during the Fall '10 term at UC Irvine.
- Fall '10