Wed+10.06+Temperament - Journal of Personality and Social...

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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2000, Vol. 78, No. 1, 173-186 In the public domain DOI: 1O.1037//O022-3514.7S.1.173 Nature Over Nurture: Temperament, Personality, and Life Span Development Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, Jr. National Institute on Aging Fritz Ostendorf and Alois Angleitner Universitat Bielefeld Martina Hrebickova Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic Maria D. Avia, Jesiis Sanz, and Maria L. Sanchez-Bernardos Universidad Complutense de Madrid M. Ersin Kusdil, Ruth Woodfield, Peter R. Saunders, and Peter B. Smith University of Sussex Temperaments arc often regarded as biologically based psychological tendencies with intrinsic paths of development. It is argued that this definition applies to the personality traits of the five-factor model. Evidence for the endogenous nature of traits is summarized from studies of behavior genetics, parent- child relations, personality structure, animal personality, and the longitudinal stability of individual differences. New evidence for intrinsic maturation is offered from analyses of NEO Five-Factor Inventory scores for men and women age 14 and over in German, British, Spanish, Czech, and Turkish samples (N = 5,085). These data support strong conceptual links to child temperament despite modest empirical associations. The intrinsic maturation of personality is complemented by the culturally conditioned development of characteristic adaptations that express personality; interventions in human development are best addressed to these. There are both empirical and conceptual links between child temperaments and adult personality traits. The empirical associa- tions are modest, but the conceptual relations are profound. Ex- plaining how this is so requires a complicated chain of arguments and evidence. For example, we report cross-sectional data showing (among other things) that adolescents are lower in Conscientious- ness than are middle-aged and older adults in Germany, the United Kingdom, Spain, the Czech Republic, and Turkey. The relevance of such data may not be immediately obvious, but in fact they speak to the transcontextual nature of personality traits and thus to the fundamental issue of nature versus nurture. Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, Jr., Personality, Stress, and Coping Section, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Ag- ing, National Institutes of Health; Fritz Ostendorf and Alois Angleitner, Department of Psychology, Universitat Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany; Martina HrebfEkova", Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic; Maria D. Avia, Jesus Sanz, and Maria L. Sanchez-Bernardos, Department of Psychology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; M. Ersin Kusdil, Ruth Woodfield, Peter R. Saunders, and Peter B. Smith, School of Social Sciences, Univer- sity of Sussex, Sussex, England. Portions of this article were presented at the 106th Annual Convention
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2010 for the course PSYCH Psy BEh 17 taught by Professor Susancharles during the Fall '10 term at UC Irvine.

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Wed+10.06+Temperament - Journal of Personality and Social...

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