How+emotion+affects+memory - How Emotion Affects Memory 1...

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How Emotion Affects Memory 1
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2 Emotional events are relevant to goals
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Today Using associative network (schema) theory to explain how emotion affects memory: Emotional state dependent memory Emotion congruent memory Evidence for and against the claim that emotional memories are… permanent (considering different meanings of “permanent”) no different from any other memory 3
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Information in LTM is organized in schemas (plural = schemata) 4
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What is a schema? A mental representation or model of an object, event, or concept in LTM A network of associated information Individual pieces of information in a schema are called “nodes” Example: restaurant 5
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Properties of schemata Organized hierarchically
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Fast food joint RESTAURANT Classy restaurant Chairs Food Seat Legs Counter help Waiters The time I got sick at McDonalds Meeting my family Plastic silverware Fine silver Wood 7
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Properties of schemata Organized hierarchically Efficient
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Properties of schemata Organized hierarchically Efficient Information in a schema becomes accessible via “spreading activation”
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Fast food joint RESTAURANT Classy restaurant Chairs Food Seat Legs Counter help Waiters The time I got sick at Subway Meeting my in-laws Plastic silverware Fine silver Wood Spreading activation 10
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How does emotion affect memory? Gordon Bower: Emotions function like nodes in an associative network of information (that is, schemas) Emotion can enhance memory in two ways: Emotional state-dependent memory Emotion congruent memory 11
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Emotional State-Dependent memory People remember information better if they learn it and recall it in the same emotional state For emotional state-dependent memory, the content or emotional tone of the information does not matter 12
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Bower’s early study showing emotional state dependent memory 1. Happy or sad mood elicited via hypnosis 2. Learned list of neutral words; filler tasks 3. Happy or sad mood elicited via hypnosis 4. Recalled words 13
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Results Recall performance was best when subjects learned and recalled words in the same emotional state
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