Instrumental+conditioning - Learning Instrumental...

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Learning: Instrumental conditioning 1
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Habituation Sensitization Classical Conditioning Where we’ve been… 2 Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning What the Behaviorists got right and wrong Practical applications Today…
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Classical Conditioning Summary Repeatedly pair a neutral stimulus (bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (food) that elicits a reflex or unconditioned response (saliva) Before conditioning, the neutral stimulus (bell) does not elicit the response (saliva) After repeated pairings, the formerly neutral stimulus alone (bell) (now called the conditioned stimulus) does elicit the response (saliva) , (now called the conditioned response) 3
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An example of learned behavior Video: Child’s tantrum in Belgian grocery store ~45 sec http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RC_rrr5WrVE 4
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Operant or “Instrumental” Conditioning Edward Thorndike,1874-1949 5
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Thorndike’s Law of Effect If a behavior is followed by a reward, the response is strengthened If a behavior is followed by no reward (or punishment) the response is weakened 6
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Thorndike’s puzzle box 7
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What is learned? An association between a behavior and a response Learning is a trial and error process in which the animal gradually becomes more likely to make those responses that produce desirable effects 8
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Types of Reinforcement & Punishment POSITIVE (give something) NEGATIVE (take something away) Reinforcement (increases behavior) press lever give food press lever take away shock Punishment (decreases behavior) press lever give shock press lever remove food 9
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10
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Shaping Reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the behavior you want to elicit.
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