P11B+Slides+15--Piaget++s+Theory - Piagets theory of...

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Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
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2 Jean Piaget 1896 – 1980
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Piaget’s Theory What he got right & wrong Current findings on cognitive development Overview: Next 2 Classes 3
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Piaget: Swiss natural scientist, philosopher, developmental theorist Cared about basic philosophical questions, such as epistemology, the study of how we come to know things Studying children’s development allowed Piaget to pursue the answers to philosophical questions in a scientific way 4
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Studied own kids and other infants and children Used clinical method: posed problems for infant or child to solve; in depth interviews Piaget’s methods 5
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General Approach: the Nature / Nurture Issue Not an empiricist who thinks knowledge comes from the environment (nurture) Not a nativist who thinks knowledge is innate (nature) Piaget held that learning is always an act of creation or construction that involves an interaction between the individual and the environment. 6
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General approach: learning is an active process 7 "Early mental development is no less than a conquest by perception and movement of the entire practical universe that surrounds the small child.“ –Jean Piaget
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8 Formal operations (11+) Concrete operations Ages 7 to 11 Pre-operational stage Ages 2 to 7 Sensorimotor stage Ages 0 to 2 General approach: Cognitive development occurs in stages Different way of reasoning at each stage Transitions somewhat gradual Ages are approximate But order of stages cannot vary
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Key concepts Scheme or schema Assimilation Accommodation Equilibrium 9
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Key concepts: Schema or Scheme A pattern of action (e.g., shaking, banging, or sucking a toy) or mental representation (e.g., categories such as dog, cow, more, less) used to make sense of the world 10
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Key concepts: Assimilation Interpreting new information in terms of what you already know (that is, in terms of existing schemas) 11
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Key concepts; Accommodation Modifying what you do or think (that is, modifying schemas) to adapt to something new in the environment 12
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