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HISTORY NOTES - 1 ooTRAD 103 Making of American Culture...

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1 ooTRAD 103 Making of American Culture, 1600-1877 Course Outline I. Chapter One: When Old Worlds Collide: Contact, Conquest, Catastrophe A) The Emergence of Complex Societies in the Americas 1) North American Mound Builders 2) Urban Cultures of the Southwest B) Contact and Cultural Misunderstanding 1) Religious Dilemmas 2) War as Cultural Misunderstanding 3) Gender and Cultural Misunderstanding C) Explanations: Patterns of Conquest, Submission, and Resistance D) Conclusion II. Chapter Two: The Challenge to Spain and the Settlement of North America A) The Challenge from Elizabethan England 1) The English Reformation Rise of puritans and Separists and their role in overseas expansion 2) Hawkins and Drake 3) Gilbert, Ireland, and America o English formed their preconceptions about American Indians largely from contact with the Irish
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2 o Sir Humphry Gilbert makes effort to subdie the irish in the 1950’s Used as springboard for colonizing America 4) Raleigh, Roanoke, and War with Spain Roanoke Island founded in 1585(no sign of colony left in 1590) B) The Chesapeake and West Indian Colonies 1) The Jamestown Disaster London company launched expedition in 1607 o Settled on Jamestown river/ founded Jamestown 2) Reorganization, Reform, and Crisis Selected its own assembly, House of Burgesses o First elected assembly Conflict w/ Indians decimated colony in 1622 o Subjugating Native Americans o Crown assumed control of the colony in 1624, making Virginia a royal colony Headright System o 3) Tobacco, Servants, and Survival Role of tobacco in colony’s early survival o Brought by John Ralf o Everyone smoked/ boomed the economy o Allowed colony to survive w/ profit Colonists focused on survival o Settlers survived only because of Indians Colony almost abandoned in 1610 4) Maryland Est. in 1632 as haven for persecuted English and Irish catholics Proprietary colony Most new settlers ended up being protestant Toleration Act of 1649 granted freedom of religion to all Christians
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3 Bicameral legislature est. Agricultural products included tobacco, corn, and livestock No est. church or vestries until 1690’s 5) Chesapeake Family Life Colony thrived between 1622 and the 1640’s o Indentured servants POP. Became self sustaining around 1680 Importance to extend family connection Marriage/ child birth increase o Life survival/birth in new colony 6) The West Indies and the Transition to Slavery Slave labor used by Barbados, sugar plantations in the 1650’s o By 1700 slaves outnumbered Europeans there o Conditions for slaves were terrible o Sugar islands profitable into 18 th century First Africans arrived in Virginia before 1619 o Initially were probably indentured servants o Slave systems firmly est. in the Chesapeake after 1680 o Est. racial caste system throughout the colonies 7) The Rise of Slavery in North America C) The New England Colonies 1) The Pilgrims and Plymouth Founded Plymouth in 1620 Did not get permission to come to America from the King(Separatists) Had to create own gov.
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