04AchieveWEB - Achievement Motivation Determinants of...

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Achievement Motivation
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UCI-P191 Motivation © Jutta Heckhausen - Lecture 4 Determinants of Motivated Behavior Action Outcome Conse- quences * Long-term goals * Evaluation by others * Self- evaluation * Material rewards Person: Needs, Motives , Goals Situation: Opportunities, Potential Incentives
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UCI-P191 Motivation © Jutta Heckhausen - Lecture 4 Overview: Need for Control Need for control is underlying the traditional major motive systems Achievement Affiliation Power Altruism Aggression Motive to control the environment (primary control) Universal need provides underlying directional dynamic General across different motives and across different classes of situations Shared with other mammals and beyond
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UCI-P191 Motivation © Jutta Heckhausen - Lecture 4 Control Striving Based on Fundamental and Universal Need Primary control striving has evolved as fundamental motivational system Control physical and social environment Phylogenetically long-standing tasks of survival and reproduction Forage for food and water Find shelter Protect against predators Compete for resources with con-specifics Compete for mate Protect and feed offsprings
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UCI-P191 Motivation © Jutta Heckhausen - Lecture 4 Control Striving Based on Fundamental and Universal Need Universal across species in the mammalian strata Rats prefer contingent to random reinforcement Monkeys work on puzzles without reinforcement Effects of non-contingency => helplessness Universal within human species across cultural, historical, and age differences Newborn humans engage in behavior-contingency cycles Realized via motivational modules Detect, prefer, and repeat behavior-event contingency Asymmetry of affective response to positive (brief affect) and negative (prolonged affect) events Curiosity and exploration
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UCI-P191 Motivation © Jutta Heckhausen - Lecture 4 Inter-Individual Differences in Control Striving Individual variations in a universal feature of human motivation Degree of perceived control required for goal engagement Premature versus delayed engagement Threshold of control constraints for goal disengagement (persistence) Premature versus delayed disengagement Focus on control gain or control loss Flexibility to adjust control goal
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UCI-P191 Motivation © Jutta Heckhausen - Lecture 4 Summary on Control Striving Basic need underlying other motive systems Evolved due to advantage for reproductive fitness Influence on behavior through motivational modules Inter-individual differences in situation- congruent adjustments of control striving
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UCI-P191 Motivation © Jutta Heckhausen - Lecture 4 Achievement Motivation: Definition and Key Processes Continuous current concern with standard of excellence “The striving to optimize one ʼ s competence in all activities for which one has adopted a standard of excellence, so that they can succeed or fail.” (Heckhausen, 1965, S. 604)
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