05PowerAffilWeb - Power Motive Power-Related Behavior as...

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Power Motive
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Power-Related Behavior as Evolutionary Heritage Power = Dominance over versus submission to others Access to resources Attractiveness for mates Rank order in social group Common in many mammalian species Universal in primates Behavioral evolution of group structures Complementary behavioral patterns for dominance and submission Experiment (Tiedens & Fragale, 2003) Confederate behaves dominant or submissive (posture) Incoming subjects display the complementary behavior Automatic versus conscious Complementary behavior => more comfortable, automatic
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A Psychological Definition of Power Power is present when someone can influence someone else to do something, s/he would not otherwise do . Power represents an asymmetric dyadic relationship with unequal distribution of social competence, access to resources, and social status. Power is realized when the behavior of a target person is controlled against his/her resistance.
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Sources of Power Unequal distribution between A (power-exerting) and B (power-receiving) in Reward power (A reinforces wanted behavior of B) Coercive power (A punishes unwanted behavior of B) Legitimate power (B believes that A is authorized to monitor adherence to norms and sanction accordingly) Referent power (B identifies with A) Expert power (B sees A as expert) Informational power (A informs B about consequences of B ʼ s behavior)
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General Strategy of Power Exertion General strategy is to rearrange the external consequences of the target person ʼ s (B) behavior Arrange positive and negative external consequences for B ʼ s behavior that channel it to intended behavior pattern Create new positive or negative incentives B ʼ s behavior becomes dominated by extrinsic motivation at the expense of intrinsic motivation
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Power Motive Approach Sense of strength and control over others Avoidance (inhibition) Fear of counter-power (retaliation) Fear of having too much or too little power resources (i.e., low self- confidence => low expectancies) Fear of exerting power because of competing values (e.g., in self- determination) Fear of long-term costs of continually monitoring/controlling others ʼ behavior Combination of power approach (striving) and avoidance (inhibition) Personalized versus socialized power
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Descriptive Model of Power-Related Interaction 1. Power Motivation High nPower Aroused Need State Communicates request 2. Resistance from Target 3. Resources of Power Personal Intelligence, strength, beauty, charm Institutional Economic, legal, weapons legitimacy of role 4. Inhibition Fear of Counter-Power Personal Values, costs, low self-confidence Institutional Norms, culture 5. Means of Influence Persuasion Threats Promises Rewards Force Ecological Change 6. Response of Target Compliance Private Acceptance Low Self-Esteem Respect for Powerholder 7. Consequences for the Powerholder Changes in Need State Self-Perceptions Perceptions of Target Changes in Values Target ʼ s Motivations and Sources of Power
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