HPSLEC5EEE2010 - Lec. #5 Human Problem Solving Gestalt...

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1 Lec. #5 Human Problem Solving Gestalt Theories of Problem Solving I. Refining the Theory II. Gestalt Experiments on Problem Solving A. Functional Fixedness B. Incubation C. Water Jug Problems III. Solutions to Gestalt Brain Teasers
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2 Kohler found four stages to problem solving in apes 1. Random trial and error 2. Incubation 3. Insight 4. Execution of Solution Kohler’s Theory in Mentality of Apes
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3 I. Refining The Theory Gestalt View- Thinking is Restructuring Trial & Error effort Barriers to Trial and Error Solutions Mind Reorganizes Elements- SOLUTION Insight The Gestalt psychologists chose special problems to express the theory, but they believed this was the standard way thinking in a problem solving situation occurs.
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4 What is Behind Insight? Gestalt concept of insight : moments of sudden comprehension resulting from rearrangement of problem elements. Gestalt psychologists argued it might result from: a) extended unconscious leaps in thinking b) greatly accelerated mental processing c) restructuring elements of problem to reveal new possibilities
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5 II. Gestalt Experiments on Problem Solving Following Kohler’s work, problem solving became the largest area in Gestalt Psychology. Numerous interesting experiments were run to test and refine aspects of the theory. Here are a few of these
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6 IIA. Functional Fixedness Karl Duncker defined functional fixedness as a mental block against using an object in a ‘new way.’ He devised many demonstrations of this. One was the ‘Box problem’ (Box 3-11 Mayer). Goal: Mount candle on wall. Materials: Matches, candles, thumb tacks, boxes Group 1: Pre-utilization- items in boxes Group 2: No pre-utilization- boxes separate 1903-1940
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7 More Functional Fixedness The box problem is solved by tacking a box to the wall, melting wax, sticking candle on box. The ‘Pre-utilization Group’ produced fewer solutions- boxes were functionally fixed to holding the items rather than being ‘in play’ as elements in the solution.
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8 The Two-Cord Problem See Box 3-12 The original problem, tie strings together. Graded hints given Item for pendulum bob Birch and Rabinowitz had two preutilization groups and a control. Gp.1 No Pre-utilization (Control)
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HPSLEC5EEE2010 - Lec. #5 Human Problem Solving Gestalt...

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