HPSLEC15-2010 - LECTURE #15 HUMAN PROBLEM SOLVING AGENDA I....

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1 LECTURE #15 HUMAN PROBLEM SOLVING AGENDA I. Problem Solving As Question Answering II. The Tip-Of-The-Tongue (TOT) Phenomena III. Network Models of Semantic Memory A. How TLC Answers Questions B. Spreading Activation Model IV. Distance Based Models of Semantic Memory A. Multidimensional Semantic Space B. Eleanor Rosch’s work on Semantic Categories
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2 I. Problem Solving As Question Answering One way to probe the nature and structure of our long term memory (LTM) is to study question answering behavior. Some questions are very rapidly answered, but there may still be measurable time differences between question answers that can be interpreted in terms of the organization and retrieval of memory. Examples are the Clark and Huttenlocher debate on three term series, the Sternberg high-speed scanning task, and the word superiority effect. Some questions can be answered by long involved search schemes. People have studied college students’ ability to list names of fellow graduating high school seniors. Progress was made even after hours of search.
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3 Some Probe Questions #1.How many windows are there in the house or apartment you lived in before the one you are in now? #2. What colors are present on the cover of the course pack? #3. Who was the author(s) of your high school algebra book? What were the colors on the cover? #4. What were you doing when you first heard about the attacks on the World Trade Center of 9/11? #5. Is a canary yellow? #6. Can sharks fly? #7.Are tigers larger than elephants? We could go on, but the point is that you have an enormous amount of potential information in LTM that you may never use.
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4 Episodic Versus Semantic Memory Many memory experts find it important to differentiate between episodic and semantic memory . Episodic memory is ‘autobiographical’ in character. It has to do with the memory of things that happened to you. This morning I woke up at 6:30 AM. Last night I ate pasta and salad. Semantic memory consists of facts that are ‘transpersonal’. For example ‘6:30 AM is in the morning.’ Pasta is a main staple in Italy, light bulbs unscrew counter-clockwise. Episodic memory is the gateway to semantic memory. Facts and names were once in episodic memory. E.G. You know Sacramento is the capital of California ( semantic memory ) but at one time it was taught to you or you read it ( episodic memory )
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5 Types of Episodic & Semantic Memory First there is very fleeting types of episodic memory : 1. echoic memory , 2. iconic memory , 3. other senses as well. Second there are short term memories that last longer, e.g. new telephone numbers: short term memory ( STM ), Working Memory cover these. Mostly episodic memory refers to memories with longer time scales. Our
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HPSLEC15-2010 - LECTURE #15 HUMAN PROBLEM SOLVING AGENDA I....

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