HPSLEC82010 - Lecture #8. Human Problem Solving AGENDA I....

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1 Lecture #8. Human Problem Solving AGENDA I. Deductive Reasoning A. Revisiting Syllogisms B. Some Famous Error Types C. Evaluating Theories of Syllogistic Reasoning II. Conditional Reasoning A. Wason Card Task B. Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens III. Brain Teaser Solutions
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2 I. Deductive Reasoning Deductive reasoning involves reasoning from a given set of premises to a given conclusion. It is not about empirically or inductively ascertaining the truth of the premises, its about whether or not the conclusions follow from the premises. ‘Normative systems’ of deductive reasoning are taught mostly in philosophy courses not science courses.
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3 A. Revisiting Syllogisms Human deductive reasoning processes depart in interesting ways from normative systems of deductive logic. First we will take up syllogistic reasoning to study human deductive thinking. We will find that humans are sometimes misled by the empirical validity of the conclusion of a syllogism, and sometimes they are misled by the form (syntax) as well.
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4 Review of Aristotle’s Syllogistic Logic Aristotle wanted a method to validly infer universals from reason. He invented syllogistic reasoning- the start of logic. Some men are Greeks A—B Major Premise Some Greeks are happy people B—C Minor Premise Some happy people are men C---A Conclusion Recall that validity concerned whether or not the conclusion ‘followed’ logically from the premises. Empirical truth was irrelevant.
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5 Review Specifics Mayer takes up the details on pp. 118-120, and this is an earlier slide. Each sentence can be in one of four ‘moods’ and the syntactic form (figure) can be one of four. So there are 4x4x4x4=256 wffs.
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HPSLEC82010 - Lecture #8. Human Problem Solving AGENDA I....

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