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mmw-lec9 - (Mon Lecture NineThe Expansion of Islam Key...

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4/19/10 (Mon) Lecture Nine The Expansion of Islam Key Question today: 1. 1) How did Arab-Muslims try to address the challenges stemming from its own rapid expansion? I) Islam after the Death of the Prophet a) Muhammad’s Last Sermon - His hope for the preservation of umma & peaceful coexistence with main group of Muslims and other religion believers - “All blood shed in pagan period is to left alm avenge” (= when I die.. do not let everything resort into violence) - “There is to be no compulsion in the religion” ( = no force people to convert/ one submit to God voluntarily) i) The preservation of the umma (1) Dual meaning of Jihad - Never considered one of the pillars(some says it’s a 6 th pilar) - Jihad = struggle in many different form: spiritual & alm struggle (if necessary arms struggle to preserve the faith) - doesn’t simply use to fight 1. (a) “Qital” refers to armed struggle - more frequent use of the armed struggle (2) Inclusive definition of a martyr is very inclusive - Hadith: “he who is killed in a way of ala is martyr” - so as person who die naturally in the way of ala = as long as you hold your submission to god & there is no god but ala & Muhammad as messenger = its martyr! b) The Legacy of Ambiguous Authority - Muhammad thought: umma will be threatened by external force (other kind of adversary) & by its own integration i) Muhammad also did not appoint a successor – had some difficulties - His status/title from him being a seal of the prophets (= last prophet) Points out the difficulty of the successor (if he’s the last one…. can’t appoint) - His charisma held umma together.. it’s hard to have another one ii) Contest between Ansars and Muhajiruns - Ansars: Muslim from Medina converted to Islam / played key role in protecting the prophet against meccans & contributed to the early victorious of Muhammad achieved - Muhajiruns : prestige & earliest followers (ie. Abu Bakr) / enjoyed privilege & seniority within the umma - After the death of Muhammad, each one wanted to have their own representatives to be a successor iii) Bedouin system of decision through consensus— shura - solution of conflict: try old Bedouin methods - based on negotiation & compromise = shura - Abu Bakr from Muhajiruns selected as the first Khalifa c) The Four Rashidun Khalifas (= deputies of prophet) - Rightly Guided Deputies of the prophet i) Abu Bakr 632-634 - The first successor
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- elected by the process of shura - father of Aisha(Muhammad’s favorite wife’s father)/ Aisha = shite: less flattering than sunni version & strongly against Ali - Meccan influence: one of the earliest follower of the prophet - important task: After Muhammad’s death.. some tribes left right away => he brought the tribes back to umma by persuasion & fight (mostly successful) - wars of the Ridda
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