BIO 244 Chapter 3 Review Questions-SP08

BIO 244 Chapter 3 Review Questions-SP08 - BIO 244 Dr...

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BIO 244 Dr. Gaillard Spring 2008 Chapter 3 Review Questions 1. Describe the composition of an amino acid. Amino acids are composed of just 20 different building blocks. Every amino acid has a carbon that makes the same four bonds. The first bonds makes the amino functional group, and the second one makes the carboxyl group. 2. How is the identity of an amino acid’s side chain (R group) related to its solubility in water? If the R-group is nonpolar, then it is hydrophobic. If it is polar then it is hydrophilic. (pg 50) 3. Name and describe the three types of isomers that exist for molecules. Structural isomers have the same atoms but differ in the order in which covalently bonded atoms are attached. Geometric isomers have the same atoms but differ in the arrangement of atoms or groups on either side of a double bond or ring structure. Optical isomers have the same atoms but differ in the arrangement of atoms or groups around a carbon atom that has four different groups attached. *4. What is a condensation reaction? What is a hydrolysis reaction? Which of these reactions is spontaneous? Which is nonspontaneous? A condensation reaction is a type of chemical reaction involving the bonding of two molecules by removal of an –OH from subunit and an –H from another to form water. A hydrolysis reaction is a reaction in which a compound reacts with water to break down into smaller molecules. In biology, most hydrolysis reactions involve polymers breaking down into monomers. (pg 54) 5. What is a peptide bond? How does it form?
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