CHM 238 - Ch 1 McMurray - Chapter 1 Structure and Bonding...

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Chapter 1 Structure and Bonding.
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Organic Chemistry:Origins Originally, the chemistry of materials “derived from living things”. Synthesis of urea by Frierich Wöhler in 1828 from ammonium cyanate. NH 4 OCN heat H 2 N C O NH 2 ammonium cyanate (inorganic) urea (organic)
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Organic Chemistry Chemistry of carbon compounds, except: CO, CO 2 , CO 3 2- , CN - ,.. Generally, must have at least one C—C bond or one C—H bond.
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Structure of Atom Nuclear atom Dense positive nucleus composed of protons and neutrons. Electrons swarm around the nucleus. Atomic Number =Number of protons. Atomic Mass Number =Number of protons +Number of neutrons.
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Structure of Atom Element determined by the atomic number. Isotopes: atoms of the same atomic number but different atomic mass number. I.e. same element, but different number of neutrons.
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Electronic structure of atom. The chemistry of an element is a function of its electrons and their behavior. Electrons are bound to nuclei in atomic orbitals. The precise location-motion of an electron is indeterminate, but it’s probability of location is determinate.
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Atomic Orbitals. Determined by three quantum numbers: n – Principle quantum number: denotes the energy level. (Allowed values = 1, 2, 3, 4, …) l orbital (azimuthal) quantum number: denote shape of orbital. (Allowed values = 0, 1, …, n-1) m l – magnetic quantum number: denotes orientation of orbital. (Allowed values = -l, …, 0, …, l ) An additional quantum number, the spin quantum number ( m s ) is important, see Pauli Exclusion Principle. (Allowed values = -1/2 or +1/2)
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Orbital Shapes l = 0, s orbital, spherical shape. l = 1, p orbital, dumbell shape. l = 2, d orbital, shamrock shape.
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Orbital Terms. Node: where the value of the orbital is 0 (zero). Usually found at phase boundary. Phase: whether the orbital is positive or negative. Degenerate: have the same energy. E.g., all three atomic p-orbitals in a level are degenerate.
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Orbitals: The number of nodal planes = the value of l . Node Plane Negative Phase Positive Phase l = 1 Node Planes Negative Phase Positive Phase Positive Phase Negative Phase l = 2 No Node Planes l = 0
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Degeneracy: Within an energy level the orbitals for a specific value of l are degenerate. The three p-orbitals are degenerate and the five d- orbitals are degenerate. l = 1
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Orbital Terms: Aufbau principle : determines the order of filling of orbitals for the electron configurations. Hund’s Rule : when filling a set of degenerate orbitals, each orbital receives one electron before any in the set receives two. Pauli Exclusion Principle :(atomic) no two electrons may have the same four quantum numbers. => (only 2 per orbital)
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Orbital terms: Valence electrons: the outer most electrons.
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