CHM 238 - Ch 1 McMurray

CHM 238 - Ch 1 McMurray - Chapter 1 Structure and Bonding....

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 1 Structure and Bonding.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Organic Chemistry:Origins Originally, the chemistry of materials “derived from living things”. Synthesis of urea by Frierich Wöhler in 1828 from ammonium cyanate. NH 4 OCN heat H 2 N C O NH 2 ammonium cyanate (inorganic) urea (organic)
Background image of page 2
Organic Chemistry Chemistry of carbon compounds, except: CO, CO 2 , CO 3 2- , CN - ,.. Generally, must have at least one C—C bond or one C—H bond.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Structure of Atom Nuclear atom Dense positive nucleus composed of protons and neutrons. Electrons swarm around the nucleus. Atomic Number =Number of protons. Atomic Mass Number =Number of protons +Number of neutrons.
Background image of page 4
Structure of Atom Element determined by the atomic number. Isotopes: atoms of the same atomic number but different atomic mass number. I.e. same element, but different number of neutrons.
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Electronic structure of atom. The chemistry of an element is a function of its electrons and their behavior. Electrons are bound to nuclei in atomic orbitals. The precise location-motion of an electron is indeterminate, but it’s probability of location is determinate.
Background image of page 6
Atomic Orbitals. Determined by three quantum numbers: n – Principle quantum number: denotes the energy level. (Allowed values = 1, 2, 3, 4, …) l orbital (azimuthal) quantum number: denote shape of orbital. (Allowed values = 0, 1, …, n-1) m l – magnetic quantum number: denotes orientation of orbital. (Allowed values = -l, …, 0, …, l ) An additional quantum number, the spin quantum number ( m s ) is important, see Pauli Exclusion Principle. (Allowed values = -1/2 or +1/2)
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Orbital Shapes l = 0, s orbital, spherical shape. l = 1, p orbital, dumbell shape. l = 2, d orbital, shamrock shape.
Background image of page 8
Orbital Terms. Node: where the value of the orbital is 0 (zero). Usually found at phase boundary. Phase: whether the orbital is positive or negative. Degenerate: have the same energy. E.g., all three atomic p-orbitals in a level are degenerate.
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Orbitals: The number of nodal planes = the value of l . Node Plane Negative Phase Positive Phase l = 1 Node Planes Negative Phase Positive Phase Positive Phase Negative Phase l = 2 No Node Planes l = 0
Background image of page 10
Degeneracy: Within an energy level the orbitals for a specific value of l are degenerate. The three p-orbitals are degenerate and the five d- orbitals are degenerate. l = 1
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Orbital Terms: Aufbau principle : determines the order of filling of orbitals for the electron configurations. Hund’s Rule : when filling a set of degenerate orbitals, each orbital receives one electron before any in the set receives two. Pauli Exclusion Principle :(atomic) no two electrons may have the same four quantum numbers. => (only 2 per orbital)
Background image of page 12
Orbital terms: Valence electrons: the outer most electrons. Generally the s and p orbital electrons in the
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 12/05/2010 for the course CHM 238 taught by Professor Arney during the Spring '07 term at Sam Houston State University.

Page1 / 73

CHM 238 - Ch 1 McMurray - Chapter 1 Structure and Bonding....

This preview shows document pages 1 - 14. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online