CHM 238 - Ch 3 - McMurray - Chapter 3 Alkanes Hydrocarbons...

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Chapter 3: Alkanes
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Hydrocarbons: Organic compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen. C x H y Four major classes: Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Aromatics
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Alkanes: Hydrocarbons with only single bonds. May be cyclic (has rings) or acyclic (no rings). May be straight or branched. H 3 C H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 CH 3 H 2 C H 2 C C H 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 2 C H 3 C CH CH 3 C H 2 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 Straight Cyclic Branched
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Alkenes: Hydrocarbons that have one or more carbon- carbon double bonds in their structure. Also called olefins . Remember, the double-bonds do not rotate.
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Example Alkenes: CH 3 CH 2 CHCHCH 2 CH 3 H 3 CHC CHCH 2 CH 3 H 2 C CH CH H 2 C H 2 C C C C C C H H H H H H
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Alkynes: Hydrocarbons that have one or more carbon- carbon triple bonds in their structure. Also referred to as acetylenic hydrocarbons.
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Example Alkynes: H C C H H 3 C H 2 C C C CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CCCH 3 C C C C C C H 3 C CH 3 H H
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Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Arenes): Aromatic hydrocarbons include those which have a “benzenoid” ring where the apparent double bonds are resonance delocalized. There are many aromatics but, for now, we will limit our discussion of them to these types. C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H C C C C C C H H H H H H Benzenoid Ring Benzene Naphthalene
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Example Aromatics: O H C C H C O H C O CH 3 O OH
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Functional Groups: A specific atom or group of atoms whose occurrence in a structure imparts predictable chemical and physical properties. For example: we have already seen that the presence of an O—H group in a molecule allows it to H-bond with other molecules of itself.
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Classes of Compounds: CLASS: A group of compounds that share a common set of chemical and physical properties because they share a common functional group. It is important to note that often two or more simple functional groups must be combined to produce a more complex functional group that defines a class.
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Simple Classes & Functional Groups: Alkenes : defined as a class of compounds by the presence of a carbon-carbon double bond. Alkynes : defined as a class of compounds by the presence of a carbon-carbon triple bond. Aromatics : thus far, defined as a class of compounds by the presence of a benzenoid ring in their structure.
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Some Simple Functional Groups: Halide Hydroxyl Carbonyl Oxa (ether link) } X where X = F, Cl, Br, or I } O } C O { H } O { CH 3 CH 2 CHClCH 3 Br I CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH OH CH 3 CH 2 COCH 2 CH 3 O CH 3 CH 2 OCH 2 CH 3 OCH 3
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Some More Functional Groups: Amine Phosphate Imine Cyano } N } O } C N { P } C N CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 3 NH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 O OPO 3 2- NH CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CN CN R(H) R(H) NHCH 3 O O O PO 3 2-
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Alcohol Class: A hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogens have been replaced by hydroxyl (- OH) groups.
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