Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - Exam 2 Study Guide Cognition and Language ATTENTION AND CATEGORIZATION 1 What is cognition What are some unique problems of

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Exam 2 Study Guide Cognition and Language ATTENTION AND CATEGORIZATION 1. What is cognition? What are some unique problems of studying, thinking, and mental processes? 2. What are the distinctions among a concept, prototype, proposition, schema, and mental image? 3. Describe the difference between preattentive and attentive processes. 4. Define “priming” and describe its relationship to attention. 5. What is the Stroop effect, and how does it relate to these processes. 6. What is a category? How do these aid our cognition? 7. What is a prototype, and how does this concept relate to categorization? 8. Briefly describe the concept of a conceptual network. 9. Describe the concept of spreading activation and how it fits into the idea of conceptual networks. PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION MAKING, AND EXPERTISE 1. Briefly describe the four steps involved in solving a problem. 2. What is the difference between an algorithm and a heuristic? 3. What is the representativeness heuristic? Give an example of: (a) a correct use of the heuristic, and (b) an incorrect use of the heuristic. 4. What is base-rate information, and how does it relate to the representativeness heuristic? 5. Define the availability heuristic, and give an example of its use. 6. Describe the circumstances in which people tend to be overconfident and underconfident in their beliefs. 7. What is “confirmation bias,” and how does it interfere with problem solving? 8. Describe the concept of functional fixedness. 9. Answers to questions sometimes depend on how the questions are “framed.” Explain this “framing effect.” 10. Define the “sunk-cost” effect. 11. What does research suggest about the nature of conscious versus unconscious effects on decision-making processes? 12. What are the general characteristics of an expert? How does expertise relate to the idea that “practice makes perfect”? LANGUAGE 1. What is productivity, and how does it distinguish human language from animal language? 2. Describe Chomsky’s concepts of surface structure and deep structure, and how these are used together in creating a sentence. 3.
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course PSYCH 01:830:101 taught by Professor Jknight during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Exam 2 Study Guide - Exam 2 Study Guide Cognition and Language ATTENTION AND CATEGORIZATION 1 What is cognition What are some unique problems of

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