Chapter 11 Solid Structure and 12 Solubility

Chapter 11 Solid Structure and 12 Solubility - Solid...

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Solid Structure: Crystal Lattice Crystal lattice: regular arrangement of atoms or ions in a solid Unit cell: smallest repeating unit Types of unit cells: Simple cubic. 52% packing efficiency. 1 atom in unit cell. Body centered cubic (BCC). 68% packing efficiency. 2 atoms in unit cell. Face centered cubic (FCC). 74% packing efficiency. 4 atoms in unit cell. Pictures from Michael Walshe, University of Limerick. http://www.ul.ie/~walshem/fyp/
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Close Packing Hexagonal close packing Layers in ABAB arrangement Gives hexagonal unit cell Cubic close packing Layers in ABCABC arrangement Gives FCC unit cell. See animations at http://www.avogadro.co.uk/structure/chemstruc/metallic/metallic.htm . Stereo images at http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/physics/solidstatephysics/Atom .
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Molecular vs. Ionic Solids Molecular: compounds are molecules, e.g. ice. Relatively low melting points. Ionic: can pack into lattices. Most common types: Cesium Chloride structure Cl- simple cubic; Cs+ in the holes The two ionic radii are similar Sodium Chloride structure Cl- FCC lattice; Na + in holes Zinc Blende (ZnS) structure S2- FCC lattice; Zn2+ in some small holes Greatest difference between ion sizes Pictures from
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Atomic Solids (does not apply to ionic compounds) Nonbonding – only dispersion forces. This only
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Chapter 11 Solid Structure and 12 Solubility - Solid...

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