HAU16008-01-2 - PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY: EVOLUTION OF THE...

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1 PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY: EVOLUTION OF THE REVOLUTION Lecture 1 October 27, 2008 Freeman Dyson I predict that the domestication of biotechnology will dominate our lives during the next fifty years at least as much as the domestication of computers has dominated our lives during the previous fifty years. ..Freeman Dyson Unity Principle Infinite Germplasm Core Concepts Food: Cereals, legumes etc Feed: Plants to make milk and meat Fruit: Nutrition and disease prevention Fiber: Wood, paper, rayon, cotton Fuel: Biodiesel, biomass ethanol Farma: Plant produced pharmaceuticals Financial: Rubber, tea, coffee, cacao Fermentation: Wine, beer etc Biomass in forests and fields takes up carbon dioxide. It can be converted to low-carbon fuels, construction wood, and other products. Illustration by Brett Hopwood (http:/ www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/v33_2_00/bioenergy.htm). Why Plants?
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2 Tall Semi- Dwarf Dwarf Transgenic Basmati rice expressing a mutant form of the Arabidopsis GAI al ele Peng et al., Nature 400: 256-261 (1999) “Green Revolution Gene A ‘Dwarf phenotype’ increases wheat yields at the expense of straw biomass Dwarf phenotype is due to an abnormal response to the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid cause by mutant allele of the GAI gene that alters the signaling pattern of the encoded transcription factor Altering the Arabidopsis GAI gene causes the same phenotype when transformed into Basmati rice The Relationship between Genes , Genomes and Phenotypic Traits Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 Charles Darwin 1809-1882 Max Delbruck 1906-1981 1990-20?? ? Genetics Evolution Molecular Biology Genomics Disease Pest Productivity Sugar-Acid Aroma Seedless Peel rots Skin disorders Storage Life The Power of Genetics Seed Color Green and yellow seeds Seed Shape Wrinkled and Round seeds Genome [Genes] Phenotype mRNA sRNA Proteins Metabolites Volatiles Products
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3 -DNA molecular structure -Restriction endonuclease -Recombinant DNA -Cell and tissue culture (totipotency) - Agrobacterium -mediated gene transfer -Transgenic plants The Cell and Molecular Revolution Agrobacterium Vector Transformed Cell DNA Binary Plasmid Vector Successes in Plant Transformation Technology RB RB mac-cryIAc Ubi3-cryIAc CaMV35S-GUS Ubi7-GUS CaMV35S-KAN mas-KAN LB LB pDU92.710 Gm Gm pDU96.3113 A billion acres of transgenic plants
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4 -Genome sequencing - Genomics -High throughput molecular analysis -Computational analysis - structure/ function -Systems biology The ‘Omic’ Revolution The ‘Human Genome Project’ created ‘Genomics’ through the revolution in DNA Sequencing Sequencing costs Dropping each year Could go down to $1,000/genome An Infinite Germplasm for Plant Improvement
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5 Summary Points 1. Plants are the driving force for food, feed, fiber and biomass production. 2. Limitations of plant breeding: sexual compatibility and availability of diverse
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2010 for the course ECONOMY Eco 100 taught by Professor Taidat during the Spring '10 term at Hanoi University of Technology.

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HAU16008-01-2 - PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY: EVOLUTION OF THE...

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