HAU16008-06-4 - Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci...

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Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 61 :258–268 (2005) DOI: 10.1002/ps.1022 Molecular evolution of herbicide resistance to phytoene desaturase inhibitors in Hydrilla verticillata and its potential use to generate herbicide-resistant crops Ren´ee S Arias, 1 Michael D Netherland, 2 Brian E Scheffler, 1 Atul Puri 3 and Franck E Dayan 1 1 USDA/ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, PO Box 8048, University, Mississippi 38677, USA 2 USACE ERDC Env Laboratory, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants 7922 NW 71st Street, Gainesville, FL 32653, USA 3 Department of Agronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA Abstract: Hydrilla [ Hydrilla verticillata (Lf) Royle] is one of the most serious invasive aquatic weed problems in the USA. This plant possesses numerous mechanisms of vegetative reproduction that enable it to spread very rapidly. Management of this weed has been achieved by the systemic treatment of water bodies with the herbicide fluridone. At least three dioecious fluridone-resistant biotypes of hydrilla with two- to fivefold higher resistance to the herbicide than the wild-type have been identified. Resistance is the result of one of three independent somatic mutations at the arginine 304 codon of the gene encoding phytoene desaturase, the molecular target site of fluridone. The specific activities of the three purified phytoene desaturase variants are similar to the wild-type enzyme. The appearance of these herbicide- resistant biotypes may jeopardize the ability to control the spread of this non-indigenous species to other water bodies in the southern USA. The objective of this paper is to provide general information about the biology and physiology of this aquatic weed in relation to its recent development of resistance to the herbicide fluridone, and to discuss how this discovery might lead to a new generation of herbicide-resistant crops. 2005 Society of Chemical Industry Keywords: non-indigenous species; invasive species; somatic mutations; herbicide resistance; aquatic weed; molecular adaptation 1 INTRODUCTION Non-indigenous invasive species have a significant ecological impact and they threaten the survival of nearly half of the endangered species. 1 Furthermore, the economical and environmental damage caused by non-native organisms amount to US$ 125–140billion per year in the USA alone. 2–4 Since most eradication programs for invasive weeds rely on the use of selective herbicides, the manage- ment of these noxious plants is set back every time an invasive plant develops resistance. Recently, fluridone- resistant biotypes of hydrilla [ Hydrilla verticillata (Lf) Royle], one of the most serious aquatic weed problems in the southern and western USA, have emerged in the waterways of Florida. In vitro assays have shown that mutations at the codon for the amino acid 304 of phytoene desaturase ( pds ) gene of hydrilla rendered this enzyme less sensitive to the herbicide fluridone.
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