HAU16008-08-3 - CHAPTER X DEVELOPMENT OF INSECT RESISTANCE...

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CHAPTER X DEVELOPMENT OF INSECT RESISTANCE IN FRUIT AND NUT TREE CROPS Matthew Escobar and Abhaya M. Dandekar Department of Pomology 1045 Wickson Hall, University of California, Davis 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 USA 1.1. Introduction. ................................................................................................ 1.2. Genes encoding resistance to insect pests. .................................................. 1.2.1. Insecticidal crystal protein encoding genes from Bacillus thuringiensis ........................................................................ 1.2.2. Proteinase inhibitors. .................................................................................. 1.2.3. Lectins. ....................................................................................................... 1.2.4. Alpha-amylase inhibitors. ........................................................................... 1.2.5. Chitinases. .................................................................................................. 1.2.6. Polyphenol oxidases and peroxidases. ........................................................ 1.2.7. Lipoxygenases. ........................................................................................... 1.2.8. Ribosome inactivating proteins. ................................................................. 1.2.9. Promising new genes. ................................................................................. 1.3. Insect adaptation in response to resistant plant varieties and possible management strategies. .......................................... 1.4. Literature Cited. ......................................................................................... 1.1. Introduction The 21st century poses a unique set of challenges for the protection of fruit and nut trees from insect pests. Safe biological alternatives to the use of chemical pesticides will be important. Insect species dominate the biosphere and will no doubt continue their dominance, and therefore discouraging the encroachment of insect pest species on crops will be a continued battle. In this article we will review some of the exciting new genes that are currently being evaluated for combating insect pests as well as some of the strategies that have arisen to sustain these approaches in the future. Genetic engineering offers a set of new approaches to more rapidly deploy anti- insect strategies in tree crops. Perennial fruit and nut crops are a significant component of U.S. agriculture that is often underrepresented in plant molecular biology and transgenic research. In California alone perennial crops are worth over $7 billion annually (1998 California Agriculture Resource Directory). Though the issues of transgenic pollen containment and public acceptance of genetically modified food are significant concerns, the current success of insect resistant transgenic corn and cotton in the field may provide a vision of the future for the fruit and nut tree crops. Below we will review the current status of different gene products that encode resistance to insects that have now been tested in transgenic plants.
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2 1.2. Genes encoding resistance to insect pests 1.2.1. INSECTICIDAL CRYSTAL PROTEIN ENCODING GENES FROM BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS : Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a ubiquitous soil bacterium which synthesizes insecticidal proteins that have a range of activity against a variety of insect pest species. Collections of Bt have been made worldwide and individual strains have been characterized and classified based upon a variety of criteria, including host range of insecticidal activity (reviews: Aronson et al . , 1986; Höfte and Whiteley, 1989; Schnepf et al . , 1998; Whiteley and Schnepf, 1986). Insecticidal activity resides in individual proteins within a crystalline inclusion body that is associated with the bacterial endospore (parasporal crystal). These proteins, previously known as delta-endotoxins, have been referred to as insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) (reviews: Aronson et al . , 1986; Höfte and Whiteley, 1989; Schnepf et al . , 1998; Whiteley and Schnepf, 1986). Genes encoding these ICPs have been cloned
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2010 for the course ECONOMY Eco 100 taught by Professor Taidat during the Spring '10 term at Hanoi University of Technology.

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HAU16008-08-3 - CHAPTER X DEVELOPMENT OF INSECT RESISTANCE...

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