Internet Notes-Ch.2

Internet Notes-Ch.2 - Internet Notes Chapter 2...

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Internet Notes Chapter 2 Chapter Summary Questions and Exercises prepared by Alan Saks. I. What is Personality? Personality  is the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his  or her environment. It is reflected in the way people react to other people, situations, and problems.  II. Personality and Organizational Behaviour Personality has a rather long and rocky history in organizational behaviour that is demonstrated by the “person-situation.”  According to the dispositional approach, individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and  behaviours. According to the situational approach, characteristics of the organizational setting such as rewards and  punishment influence people’s feelings, attitudes, and behaviour. According to the interactionist approach, organizational  behaviour is a function of both dispositions and the situation. The interactionist approach is the most widely accepted  perspective within organizational behaviour. The role of personality in organizational settings is strongest in “weak” situations  where there are loosely defined roles and few rules. In strong situations which have more defined roles, rules, and  contingencies, personality tends to have less impact. Thus, the extent to which personality influences people’s attitudes and  behaviours depends on the situation.  A. The Five-Factor Model of Personality  Psychologists have discovered that there are about five basic, but general dimensions that describe personality:  Extraversion. Sociable, talkative vs. withdrawn, shy.  Emotional Stability/Neuroticism. Stable, confident vs. depressed, anxious.  Agreeableness. Tolerant, cooperative vs. cold, rude.  Conscientiousness. Dependable, responsible vs. careless, impulsive.  Openness to Experience. Curious, original vs. dull, unimaginative.  There is evidence that each of the “Big Five” dimensions is related to job performance. High conscientiousness is related to  performance for all occupations and the best predictor of performance of all the “Big Five” dimensions. The “Big Five”  dimensions have also been found to be related to motivation, job satisfaction, and career success.  B. Locus of Control  Locus of control  is a set of beliefs about whether one's behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces. High  "externals" see their behaviours controlled by factors like fate, luck and powerful people. High "internals" see stronger effects  on their behaviour as a consequence of self-initiative, personal actions and free will. 
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  • Winter '09
  • Jaeger
  • Reinforcers, Organizational Behaviour Personality

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