Lecture Notes P PRE Midterm - Whirlwind Tour of Personality...

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Whirlwind Tour of Personality Psychology Elaborate and formalized answer to the question “What do we need to know in order to know someone well?” A. Trait Psychology Enduring, general characteristics When asked to describe someone else, most people use traits to describe people. To get to know someone, we have to understand their traits. Trait Psychology is the formalization of the common-sense approach to people. Big Questions Do people really have traits? Do people always have specific traits? Do they portray them to the same people? To the same degree? People’s traits are very modestly correlated amongst many situations (barely 0.3 correlation). This is why we believe that the concept of traits may be an illusion. History: Allport 1920 Cattel and Eysenck 1940-1960 5 Factor Model/Big Five Model B. Psychodynamic Personality Psychology Unconscious wishes and fears Especially childish wishes and fears and ones that are in conflict with one another. In order to know someone, you must know their conscious and unconscious wishes and fears. o E.g. This person seems nice, but she really wants to dominate and control everyone. o E.g. It is conscious that we want to do well in school to give us more opportunities in life. An unconscious motive can be proving to your mother that you are just as much of a man as your father. Big Questions To what extent are people ruled by unconscious, childish wishes? This is the big story to Freud . History: Freud 1890-1910 Adler and Jung o Freud’s disciples who evolved his theories on primacy of sex Ego-psychologists (Erikson)
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o Freud’s disciples who evolved his theories on the primacy of the unconscious Neo and Post-Freudians (Sullivan) Freud’s disciples who evolved his theories on the primacy of the nuclear family (concentrated on culture) Object relations theorists (Mahler) People’s biggest motive was relatedness C. Social-Cognitive Theory Pattern of social behavior are learned from the environment So learn about their habits, their beliefs, and their goals to get to know them. Behavior is determined by: Beliefs and goals o Aka: Expectancies and motives o What you value, what you want? o What will work, what will get you what you want? Maximize reinforcement o You do what you have to in order to maximize reinforcement Big Questions How important is conceptual and empirical rigor? Should we start from a solid conceptual basis and then add in complexity? Or should we start with broad intuitively theories and try to tighten them up as we go along? History: Pavlov, Hull, Skinner Dollard and Miller o Conditioned habits Rotter o Expectancy Bandura and Mischel D. Humanistic Psychology Higher nature- Self actualization Duality of human nature We can be inhumane and we can be altruistic. The other three theories failed to address the higher nature, or the positive side of human nature and how we can use our resources to become all that we can be.
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