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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 [Fi [43 Lin 3.2 —— No PgE [43 CHAPTER 2 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Materials * R.T JACOBSEN Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho E. W. LEMMON Physical and Chemical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology Boulder, Colorado S. G. PENONCELLO and Z. SHAN Center for Applied Thermodynamic Studies College of Engineering University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho N.T. WRIGHT Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Maryland Baltimore, Maryland 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Thermophysical properties of fluids 2.2.1 Thermodynamic properties Equation of state Calculation of properties Thermodynamic properties of mixtures 2.2.2 Transport properties Extended corresponding states Dilute-gas contributions Density-dependent contributions Transport properties of mixtures 2.3 Thermophysical properties of solids 2.3.1 Conservation of energy 2.3.2 Behavior of thermophysical properties of solids * The material in this chapter is a contribution in part of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, not subject to copyright in the United States. We gratefully thank Mark McLinden for permission to use portions of his work for the section on extended corresponding states, as well as the help and suggestions of Daniel Friend and Joan Sauerwein, all of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. 43
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44 THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS AND MATERIALS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 [44] Lin 0.1 —— Lon PgE [44] 2.3.3 Property values of solid materials 2.3.4 Measuring thermophysical properties of solids Thermal conductivity Specific heat Thermal diffusivity Thermal expansion Nomenclature References Graphs of thermophysical properties 2.1 INTRODUCTION The need for accurate thermophysical properties in the design and analysis of en- gineered systems is well established. The industrial applications of various working fluids and solids require a variety of property values with accuracies that range from crude estimates to precisions of 1 part in 10,000 for some sensitive applications. It is particularly true that small errors in properties for custody transfer of fluids can result in significant costs or benefits to those involved in commercial transactions. It is the responsibility of the engineer to decide what level of accuracy is needed for a particular application and to establish the uncertainty of the related design or analysis in light of the accuracy of the properties used. In addition to the individual properties for system design and analysis, there is a need for combined heat transfer parameters and dimensionless groups that occur in equations for conduction, convection, and radiation. These include: Biot number Boussinesq number Eckert number Fourier number Graetz number Grashof number Lewis number Nusselt number P´eclet number Prandtl number Rayleigh number Reynolds number
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  • Spring '10
  • mikey
  • Thermodynamics, The Land, John Wiley, Equation of state, Bejan, BOOKCOMP, Inc., Heat Transfer Handbook

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