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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 [Fi r s [71 9 Lin e -0 . 8 —— No r m PgE [71 9 CHAPTER 10 Condensation M. A. KEDZIERSKI Building and Fire Research Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, Maryland J. C. CHATO Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois T. J. RABAS Consultant Downers Grove, Illinois 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Vapor space ±lm condensation 10.2.1 Nusselt’s analysis of a vertical flat plate 10.3 Film condensation on low ±ns 10.3.1 Introduction 10.3.2 Surface tension pressure gradient 10.3.3 Speci±ed interfaces 10.3.4 Bond number 10.4 Film condensation on single horizontal ±nned tubes 10.4.1 Introduction 10.4.2 Trapezoidal ±n tubes 10.4.3 Sawtooth ±n condensing tubes 10.5 Electrohydrodynamic enhancement 10.5.1 Introduction 10.5.2 Vapor space EHD condensation 10.5.3 In-tube EHD condensation 10.6 Condensation in smooth tubes 10.6.1 Introduction 10.6.2 Flow regimes in horizontal tubes Flow regimes in horizontal two-phase flow Effects of mass flux and quality Effects of fluid properties and tube diameter Potential role of surface tension Flow regime mapping Comparison of flow regime maps 719
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720 CONDENSATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 [720 Lin e -5. 0 —— Nor m PgE n [720 10.6.3 Heat transfer in horizontal tubes Effects of mass flux and quality Effects of tube diameter Effects of fluid properties Effects of temperature difference Gravity-driven condensation Shear-driven annular flow condensation Comparison of heat transfer correlations 10.6.4 Pressure drop 10.6.5 Effects of oil 10.6.6 Condensation of zeotropes 10.6.7 Inclined and vertical tubes 10.7 Enhanced in-tube condensation 10.7.1 MicroFn tubes 10.7.2 MicroFn tube pressure drop 10.7.3 Twisted-tape inserts 10.8 ±ilm condensation on tube bundles 10.8.1 X-shell condensers (shell-side condensation) Tube-side flow and temperature maldistribution Condenser sizing methods Noncondensable gas management and proper venting techniques 10.8.2 In-tube condensers Nonuniform outside inlet flow and temperature distributions Noncondensable gas pockets 10.9 Condensation in plate heat exchangers 10.9.1 Introduction 10.9.2 Steam condensation heat transfer 10.9.3 Effect of inclination on heat transfer performance 10.9.4 Effect of inclination on pressure drop Appendix A Nomenclature References 10.1 INTRODUCTION Condensation is the process by which a vapor is converted to its liquid state. Because of the large internal energy difference between the liquid and vapor states, a signiF- cant amount of heat can be released during the condensation process. ±or this reason, the condensation process is used in many thermal systems.
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