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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 [Fi r s [94 7 Lin e 3.7 6 —— No r m PgE [94 7 CHAPTER 13 HeatTransfer in Electronic Equipment AVRAM BAR-COHEN Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota ABHAY A.WATWE and RAVI S. PRASHER Intel Corporation Chandler, Arizona 13.1 Introduction 13.1.1 Cooling requirements History Present and future 13.1.2 Thermal packaging goals Preventing catastrophic failure Achieving reliable operations Life-cycle costs 13.1.3 Packaging levels 13.2 Thermal resistances 13.2.1 Introduction 13.2.2 Basic heat transfer modes Conduction Convection Radiation 13.2.3 Chip package resistance Internal resistance External resistance Flow resistance Total resistance: single-chip packages 13.3 Length-scale effects on thermophysical properties 13.3.1 Spreading resistance 13.3.2 Heat flow across solid interfaces Thermal contact resistance Thermal boundary resistance Interstitial materials Thermal conductivity of particle-laden systems Effect of ±ller concentration on mechanical strength 13.3.3 First-order transient effects Lumped heat capacity 947
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948 HEAT TRANSFER IN ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 [948 Lin e 0.7 2 —— Nor m PgE n [948 Thermal wave propagation Chip package transients 13.3.4 Heat flow in printed circuit boards Anisotropic conductivity Thermal vias Effect of trace layers 13.4 Convective phenomena in packaging 13.4.1 Printed circuit boards in natural convection 13.4.2 Optimum spacing 13.4.3 Printed circuit boards in forced convection 13.5 Jet impingement cooling 13.5.1 Introduction 13.5.2 Correlation 13.5.3 First-order trends 13.5.4 Figures of merit 13.5.5 General considerations for thermal–fluid design 13.5.6 Impingement on heat sinks 13.6 Natural convection heat sinks 13.6.1 Empirical results 13.7 Phase-change phenomena 13.7.1 Heat pipes and vapor chambers Alternative designs 13.7.2 Immersion cooling 13.8 Thermoelectric coolers 13.9 Chip temperature measurement 13.10 Summary Nomenclature References 13.1 INTRODUCTION 13.1.1 Cooling Requirements History Despite the precipitous drop in transistor switching energy that has charac- terized the solid-state semiconductor revolution, the cooling requirements of micro- electronic components have not diminished. As the twenty-±rst century begins, high- performance chip power dissipation exceeds 100 W, some three orders-of-magnitude above the SSI (small-scale integration) chips of the early 1960s, and informed opin- ion suggests that a 150-W chip will become reality within the ±rst decade of the twenty-±rst century. Thermal management is thus one of the key challenges in ad- vanced electronic packaging, and considerable improvement in thermal packaging will be needed to exploit successfully the Moore’s law acceleration in semiconductor technology.
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INTRODUCTION 949 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 [94 9 Lin e 0.0 p —— No r m PgE [94 9
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