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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 [Fi r s [13 0 Lin e * 17 . 6 —— No r m * PgE [13 0 CHAPTER 18 Microscale HeatTransfer ANDREW N. SMITH Department of Mechanical Engineering United States Naval Academy Annapolis, Maryland PAMELA M. NORRIS Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Microscopic description of solids 18.2.1 Crystalline structure 18.2.2 Energy carriers 18.2.3 Free electron gas 18.2.4 Vibrational modes of a crystal 18.2.5 Heat capacity Electron heat capacity Phonon heat capacity 18.2.6 Thermal conductivity Electron thermal conductivity in metals Lattice thermal conductivity 18.3 Modeling 18.3.1 Continuum models 18.3.2 Boltzmann transport equation Phonons Electrons 18.3.3 Molecular approach 18.4 Observation 18.4.1 Scanning thermal microscopy 18.4.2 3 ω technique 18.4.3 Transient thermoreflectance technique 18.5 Applications 18.5.1 Microelectronics applications 18.5.2 Multilayer thin-±lm structures 18.6 Conclusions Nomenclature References 1309
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1310 MICROSCALE HEAT TRANSFER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 [131 0 Lin e 0.0 p —— Sho r PgE n [131 0 18.1 INTRODUCTION The microelectronics industry has been driving home the idea of miniaturization for the past several decades. Smaller devices equate to faster operational speeds and more transportable and compact systems. This trend toward miniaturization has an infec- tious quality, and advances in nanotechnology and thin-Flm processing have spread to a wide range of technological areas. A few examples of areas that have been affected signiFcantly by these technological advances include diode lasers, photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric materials, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs). Improve- ments in the design of these devices have come mainly through experimentation and macroscale measurements of quantities such as overall device performance. Most studies of the microscale properties of these devices and materials have focused on either electrical and/or microstructural properties. Numerous thermal issues, which have been largely overlooked, currently limit the performance of modern devices. Hence the thermal properties of these materials and devices are of critical importance for the continued development of high-tech systems. The need for increased understanding of the energy transport mechanisms of thin Flms has given rise to a new Feld of study called microscale heat transfer. Microscale heat transfer is simply the study of thermal energy transfer when the individual carriers must be considered or when the continuum model breaks down. The continuum model for heat transfer has classically been the conservation of energy equation coupled with ±ourier’s law for thermal conduction. In an analogous manner, the study of “gas dynamics” arose when the continuum fluid mechanics models were insufFcient to explain certain phenomena. The Feld of microscale heat transfer bears some striking similarities. One area of similarity is in the methodology. Usually, the
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2010 for the course ECON 089907 taught by Professor Mikey during the Spring '10 term at Nashville State Community College.

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