PSYC_100_Final_Exam_Study_Guide - PSYC 100 Final Exam Study...

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PSYC 100 Final Exam Study Guide Scientific Method What is a theory? What is a prediction? o Theory: Ideas on how we think the world works. “Made up system” because we think that it’s capturing what is really going on in the world. Ex: Maps are theories on local geog. (We test theories against experiences in the world) o Prediction: Clear and concise statement of what you expect to observe What is empiricism? o Empiricism : We know what we know based on past experiences Variables – what is an independent variable? Dependent variable? Extraneous variable? o Independent variable: what is being manipulated o Dependent variable: how the subject is measured o Extraneous variable: any other variables that can affect the outcome How can extraneous variables be controlled? RANDOMIZATION o Between subjects design: everyone’s taking the same test, for example, problem: the diff subjects themselves become the issue o Within subjects design: more favorable, same population Limitations of experimental research o Some areas of the human mind/behavior may be too complex to manipulate o Experiments in lab settings might not translate to the real world o May be unethical to manipulate some variables Correlational research o Positive vs. negative correlations Positive: variables move in the same direction, if one goes up then the other goes up and vice versa Negative: variables move in opposite directions, if one goes up, the other goes down No correlation: neither variable has an effect on the other o Major limitation of Correlational research CANNOT DRAW CAUSAL CONCLUSIONS FROM CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH/EVIDENCE Reasons: you cannot control external variables, you don’t which direction the cause is (if A causes B or if B causes A)= directionality problem , there may be some other variable causing A and B to change= 3 rd variable problem What is preferred — Correlational or experimental research? Biopsychology Parts of a neuron and their functions o Dendrites: receive information, positive and negative ions o Soma (cell body): processes information, makes decision to fire or not o Myelin sheath: insulates and makes the message go faster o Terminal buttons: release neurotransmitters into synaptic deft) o Axon: connects each neuron to each other When does a neuron react in an “all or none” manner vs. a “graded” manner? o Lots of fluctuation, neuron RECEIVES info and responds in a graded manner
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o neuron SENDS info down axon into synapse in an “all or none” manner, it either fires or it doesn’t o All or none: it either fires or it doesn’t o Once it fires, it takes in the info gradually How a neuron fires – All or None How does a neuron transmit information about intense stimuli?
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