PSYC_100_Exam_3_Study_Guide - PSYC 100 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE...

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PSYC 100 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE Intelligence and Psychological Testing Intelligence measures your IQ, personality deals with your character traits, etc. Achievement vs. aptitude tests o APTITUDE : measures intelligence in a specific area, predicts future performance, percentile score is more important than your actual number o ACHIEVEMENT : like a test you take in class, measures information you learned in the past What does it mean if a test is standardized? Normed? What is reliability? Why is it important? o Reliability: if the test is consistent over time, need to know consistency to asses knowledge among everyone Types of validity o Construct validity Actually measuring the idea/concept of interest o Content validity All of the items on the test measure all of the knowledge/skills that make up the concept o Criterion validity Does the test actually predict potential in a specific area Reliability and validity of the modern IQ test Cyril Burt – what did he claim? What was the problem with his research? What is the evidence that IQ is inherited? o Identical twins have a .85 IQ correlation, fraternal have a .58, genes HAVE influence What is the evidence that IQ is influenced by the environment? o Adoptive parents and child, nurture, IQ increase bt 10-12 pts when going to a better SES – environment HAS influence What is a reaction range? o The idea that for any measurable trait, there is a range that any individual might fall into Are ethnic differences in IQ due to biological differences? Environmental differences? o “Racial differences in IQ are genetically based” – statistically just different Social Psychology What is an attitude? Name/describe the 3 components of an attitude – cognitive, affective, behavioral Most important factor in attitude-behavior consistency – does the attitude object directly affect you? Persuasion: what factors are involved in changing someone’s attitude? o Characteristics of the sender (credibility, likability, etc.) o Characteristics of the message (one-sided vs. two-sided, etc.)
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o Characteristics of the receiver (latitude of acceptance) Routes to persuasion: central vs. peripheral (which is more effective in the long run?) Cognitive dissonance – what is it? How do we get rid of it?
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