thet110finalreview - THET 100 FINAL REVIEW Greek theatre o...

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THET 100 FINAL REVIEW * Greek theatre o Sources of information we have about it + Extant plays and fragments + Archaeological remains + Government records + Inscriptions + Plays from fifth century BC, ruins of theatre from fourth century BC + Visual art- statues, paintings, mosaics o “The Greek world” – any place Greeks could get to + Sparta- war, military + Athens- art, literature, philosophy + Delphi- oracles + Characteristics all Greeks share: # Language # Competition # Polytheistic # Humanism # Valued control of trained mind and fit body o Polis: city-state o “Citizen”: adult male, free, native-born. Women couldn’t be citizens but could pass citizenship to sons o Women’s value was producing children and running the household o Poor women worked in the market, wealthy women shopped o City Dionysoa: every March in Athens. Celebrated the god Dionysus. + Featured dithyramb contests. All extant plays were meant for this contest + Archon: government official. Selected plays, sponsors, and judges. Handed out awards + Choregos: wealthy citizen. Paid to house/ feed/ train the chorus. Civic duty- paying to support the city - “leitourgia” + Theatrones: managed the physical theatre. In charge of tickets and enforcing seating rules o Theatres: stadium seating + Thorikos: rectangular. Still stands today. + Epidaurus: perfect circle. Prettiest. Wedge-shaped seats o Parts of the theatre + Theatron: the whole theatre, “seeing place” + Orchestra: “dancing place” + Parados: aisles on either side so chorus can get in/out + Skene: used for changing; behind stage + Front row seats reserved for government officials, priest, wealthy men o Special effects + Ekkyklema: hidden platform + Mechane: crane standing behind the skene- gets “gods” on and off stage o Costumes
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+ Masks: actors play multiple characters. Communicate gender, race, job, class. + Shoes: soft boots for dancing. Platform sandals for nobility and tragedy + Clothes: robes for tragedies, padded body suits or a phallus for comedies/satyr plays. Chorus all costumed alike- can be human or mythical animal o Dithyrambs: choral hymns with dancing and chanting. Performed by troops of 50 males. o Thespis: a dithyramb singer. Decided to step out of the chorus and start dialogue – first actor o Types of plays + Tragedy: # Goal of good tragedies is catharsis # Historical, mythic, or heroic stories # Hero has character flaw that leads to his/her downfall # Chorus of 12-50 people # 1, 2, or 3 actors # prologos (prologue), parados (parade), epeisodos (episodes), stasima (choral interludes/ talking), exodus (exit) + Comedy: # Everyday people # Involves a crazy, happy idea # Comments on present ways of life, politicians # Humor from sex jokes + Satyr: # Part man, part goat. Attendant to Dionysus # Written to accompany tragedies # Parodied mythical stories # One extant satyr play- Cyclops # Preserves structure of tragedy while adopting a happy atmosphere Tragedy Playwrights o Upper-class men o Well-educated o Tragic authors submitted 3 tragedies and 1 satyr play (tetralogy) o Comic authors submitted just 1 play o Aeschylus # Wrote 80 plays- 6 or 7 remain # Earliest playwright
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