Exam 2 Study Guide FMSC332

Exam 2 Study Guide FMSC332 - FMSC 332 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE...

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FMSC 332: EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 5: Infant Cognitive Development 1) What are the major assumptions and processes in Piaget's theory of infant cognitive development (sensorimotor period) Sensorimotor Period: Adaptation, no symbolic thinking, no logical thinking, no abstract thinking. Sensorimotor=0-2 years, child starts to interact with the environment Awareness of world is limited to sensory information and basic motor acts 2) How does memory develop in early and later infancy? How do we test object permanence, and what does this concept suggest about babies’ memory? What is the A-not-B search error and when does this occur? Object Permanence: Understanding that objects still exists even if you can’t see, touch, or hear them (example of recall memory) 0 to 1 year: no object permanence 1 to 1½ years: partial view of objects sparks memory that it exists; A-not-B error o Child successfully uncovers a toy at location “A”, and continues to reach to that location even after they watch the toy be moved in a nearby location “B” 1½ to 2 years: full OP; babies understand that even though they can’t see the object it still exists MEMORY 0-3 months: very little storage of info 3-6 months: memory is highly context bound and depends on cues Recognition memory (if given a context cue, it can be remembered) 6-18 months: limited working memory to initiate action Recall memory 3) What is the underlying concept of Vygotsky’s theory about how parents help their children’s cognitive development? Sociocultural perspective Environment allows children to explore and grow Adults structure the environment to foster learning they consider to be most important (ex: cognitive, linguistic, artistic) Infants are like guided tourists and not explorers as they develop cognitively Sociocultural Perspective Adults structure the environment to foster the kind of learning they deem most important for children. Cross-cultural research on infants’ sensorimotor development: o They share same skills for exploring world o Most babies achieve object permanence at about same age o However, differences in environment influence how child explore the world Example: differences in “floor-freedom” **Zone of Proximal Development : the distance between what the child can do with the help of an adult or more capable peers and what he can do on his own Ex: learning to walk, turning the page of a book Also known as “scaffolding” **Infant IQ Tests - Variables measured in infant IQ tests Speed of information processing Capacity of working memory -Scores on developmental tests in infancy and toddler hood do not predict: future IQ’s 1
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1) How do newborns’ predispositions and caregivers’ responses work together to produce reciprocity in social interactions Reciprocity : mutual exchange of social interactions Attunement : caregivers attract and enhance infant’s attention and involvement
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Exam 2 Study Guide FMSC332 - FMSC 332 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE...

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