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Exam 2 Review - Reliability and Validity...

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Reliability and Validity RELIABILITY: (dependable measures) Test-retest: consistency over time Split half/equivalent forms: consistency across indicators – does each half/form give the same scores? Interrater: consistency among observers VALIDITY: (true measures) Face: indicator makes sense in general, “take it at face value”, makes sense in judgment of others Content: captures the entire meaning of construct, try to achieve this, difficult! (ie: captured ENITRE meaning of stress) Construct: multiple indicators are consistent o Convergent: alike ones are similar o Discriminate: different ones differ o Marriage/cheating example Criterion: agrees with an external source o Concurrent: agrees with a preexisting measure o Predictive – agrees with future behavior (ex: SAT and GPA) Sampling Non-probability sampling: uses available subjects, not generalizable o Reliance on Available subjects sampling: results are usually not generalizable, should only be used if other sampling techniques are not possible o purposive/judgmental: selecting a sample on the basis of knowledge of a population; used when researchers are interested in people that don’t fit into regular patterns of attitudes and behaviors o snowball: recruit some participants, ask participants to recruit more participants; best for hard to reach populations o quota: specific charactertics are selected as important to the RQ; create a matrix of the target population; pick sample based on matrix (ex: chart in slides) o A non-probability sample is easy, but not representative Sampling bias: those selected for the research are not typical or representative of the larger population Probability Sampling: random selection of participants, generalizable; Most effective method for selection, limits researcher selection bias and error, permits estimates of sampling error o
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  • Spring '10
  • Fanflik
  • representative Sampling bias, Draw random sample, Large representative sample, researcher selection bias, assign scores

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