anthromt2 - Bureau of American Ethnography (BAE): 1894,...

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Bureau of American Ethnography (BAE): 1894, funded by Smithsonian to study Native American society /people before they became acculturated into modern western life/tech at that time. Direct historical approach: material culture vs. contemp ppl. Apply knowledge of present -> interpret arch record (artifacts, ecofacts, features) from nearby sites. Reconstruct life ways of the past. Moundbuilders 1880s/ Cyrus Thomas: used holistic anthro perspective. Similaritites between S.American natives’ tools (now) and tools in mound. Direct historical approach determined direct historical connection btwn mound builders and contemp native people. Debunked in 1894. Seriation: order artifacts in temporal sequence (oldest -> youngest) Law of superposition: sedimentary strata that hasn’t been disturbed by folding/overturning since accumulation: youngest on top, oldest at base. Manuel Gamio – worked in valley of Mexico, used stratigraphic excavation/superposition to look at how ceramics changed over time; found out Aztecs were the latest manifestation of a long line of complex Mexican societies Folsom site in New Mexico: discovered clovis points (bigger) beneath folsom. Clovis associated w/mammoths. Culture: set of rules shared/learned by members of a specific group. Determine patterns of behavior. Normative model of culture: each culture characterized by set of normative/ideal rules that prescribe proper behavior responses in social contexts (cultural norms, shared ideas). Ex: how to produce pottery, lithics. Cultural relativism: no 2 cultures have same cultural norms. Modal type: common accepted way for producing artifact for that certain culture (ex: pottery…) Diffusion: when similar projectile points, etc found in 2 diff culture areas = contact = diffusion. Culture history approach (1920 – 60): good descriptions (defined modal tools, etc.), improved field methods – define attributes of artifacts, chronology (relative dating, absolute dating) Willard Libby – invented RADIOCARBON. Radioactivity of carbon materials in organic materials Processual approach (1960-1980): critique of culture history approach. - CRITICISMS: 1. EMPHASIS ON ARTIFACT CLASSIFICATION. 2. DESCRIPTION VS. EXPLANATION o Emphasis on artifact classification, too little emphasis on understand past people behaviors. “pottery sherds w/o people” o Goal of new arch: study past people o Description vs. Explanation (need to do more than just describe cult hist. need to explain culture/society change. Hist explain w/diffusion. Processual think this is too simple. - Cultural evolution: Want to examine why societies change simple -> complex. Stress generality o Cross-cultural processes must be taking place throughout history - Techno-environmental explanations: societies adapting to natural/physical environments (cultural-ecology – human relationships with the enviro.) o Change in natural enviro or tech were prime movers in cultural evo. -
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anthromt2 - Bureau of American Ethnography (BAE): 1894,...

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