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Unformatted text preview: 12 Safety Intelligence and Legal Machine Language: Do We Need the Three Laws of Robotics? Yueh-Hsuan Weng, Chien-Hsun Chen and Chuen-Tsai Sun Conscription Agency, Ministry of the Interior National Nano Device Laboratories (NDL) Dept. of Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University Taiwan 1. Introduction In this chapter we will describe a legal framework for Next Generation Robots (NGRs) that has safety as its central focus. The framework is offered in response to the current lack of clarity regarding robot safety guidelines, despite the development and impending release of tens of thousands of robots into workplaces and homes around the world. We also describe our proposal for a safety intelligence (SI) concept that addresses issues associated with open texture risk for robots that will have a relatively high level of autonomy in their interactions with humans. Whereas Isaac Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics are frequently held up as a suitable foundation for creating an artificial moral agency for ensuring robot safety, here we will explain our skepticism that a model based on those laws is sufficient for that purpose. In its place we will recommend an alternative legal machine language (LML) model that uses non-verbal information from robot sensors and actuators to protect both humans and robots. To implement a LML model, robotists must design a biomorphic nerve reflex system, and legal scholars must define safety content for robots that have limited “self- awareness.” 2. Service robots Since the Japanese already show signs of a special obsession with robots, it is no surprise that many new ideas on robot regulation are also emerging from Japan. Regarded as a “robot kingdom,” it will most likely be the first country to produce and sell large numbers of NGRs for private use (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry [METI], 2004). That day is expected to emerge within the next two decades, raising both expectations and concerns among safety-conscious Japanese (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan [COGJ], 2007). Issued in February 2004, the Fukuoka World Robot Declaration contains details on Japanese expectations for emerging NGRs that will co-exist with and assist human beings, physically and psychologically. The guiding principle behind the document is to contribute to the realization of a safe and peaceful society (European Robotics Research Network [EURON], 2006); however, it fails to describe what NGRs should be. Service Robot Applications 196 In a report predicting the near future (2020-2025) in robot development, the Japanese Robot Policy Committee (RPC, established by METI) discusses two NGR categories: (a) next generation industrial robots capable of manufacturing a wide range of products in variable batch sizes, performing multiple tasks, and (unlike their general industrial predecessors) working with or near human employees; and (b) service robots capable of performing such tasks as house cleaning, security, nursing, life support, and entertainment—all functions...
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- Spring '10
- Brave New World, NGRs, legal machine language