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Toward the Human-Robot Co-Existence Society - On Safety Intelligence for Next Generation Robots (200

Toward the Human-Robot Co-Existence Society - On Safety Intelligence for Next Generation Robots (200

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Int J Soc Robot (2009) 1: 267–282 DOI 10.1007/s12369-009-0019-1 O R I G I NA L PA P E R Toward the Human–Robot Co-Existence Society: On Safety Intelligence for Next Generation Robots Yueh-Hsuan Weng · Chien-Hsun Chen · Chuen-Tsai Sun Accepted: 7 April 2009 / Published online: 25 April 2009 © Springer Science & Business Media BV 2009 Abstract Technocrats from many developed countries, es- pecially Japan and South Korea, are preparing for the human–robot co-existence society that they believe will emerge by 2030. Regulators are assuming that within the next two decades, robots will be capable of adapting to complex, unstructured environments and interacting with humans to assist with the performance of daily life tasks. Unlike heavily regulated industrial robots that toil in iso- lated settings, Next Generation Robots will have relative autonomy, which raises a number of safety issues that are the focus of this article. Our purpose is to describe a frame- work for a legal system focused on Next Generation Robots safety issues, including a Safety Intelligence concept that addresses robot Open-Texture Risk . We express doubt that a model based on Isaac Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics can ever be a suitable foundation for creating an artificial moral agency ensuring robot safety. Finally, we make predictions about the most significant Next Generation Robots safety is- sues that will arise as the human–robot co-existence society emerges. Y.-H. Weng ( ) Conscription Agency, Ministry of the Interior, Republic of China, Chengkungling, Taiwan e-mail: [email protected] C.-H. Chen 7531, Lucas Rd, Richmond, BC, V6Y 1G1, Canada e-mail: [email protected] C.-T. Sun College of Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan e-mail: [email protected] Keywords Safety intelligence · Robot legal studies · Roboethics · Robot policy · The three laws of robotics · Robot law · Social robotics 1 Introduction The Japanese Robot Association 1 predicts that Next Gen- eration Robots will generate up to 7.2 trillion yen (approxi- mately 64.8 billion USD) of economic activity by 2025, with 4.8 trillion (43.2 billion USD) going to production and sales and 2.4 trillion (21.6 billion USD) to applications and sup- port. According to the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), manufacturers will focus on specific markets (e.g., housework, nursing, security), while applica- tion and support firms provide maintenance, upgrading, and reselling services similar to today’s information technology structure [ 1 ]. Also similar to the current IT industry, individ- ual firms will specialize in such areas as education (public, safety, technical, etc.), selling insurance to cover special ro- bot risks, and buying/selling used robots. The Fukuoka World Robot Declaration , issued in Feb- ruary 2004, lists Japanese expectations for Next Generation Robots that co-exist with human beings, assist human be- ings both physically and psychologically, and contribute to the realization of a safe and peaceful society.
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